Time Line - Historical Overview
TANAKH - OLD TESTAMENT SURVEY
Welcome to the THIRD in a series of talks on a Survey of Old Testament History, as viewed through Jewish eyes.
By this point in our discussion, we have observed the Creation narrative and the Great Fall of Man in the Garden. Nevertheless, GOD Most High, Creator and Ruler of all the universe - Whom we have discovered is the God of Abaham and Isaac and Jacob - has promised the ultimate DESTRUCTION of Satan the serpent in the Garden, the great deceiver, by the "seed of the woman," a miraculous deliverer, who IN FUTURE would come to RESTORE creation to its rightful condition, and to provide a BLESSING to all mankind.
One theme of these lectures is to trace the "seed of the woman," the miraculous deliverer. Another is to show GOD’s hand in history, that He is not a God far off but is very near, acting in history.
We have seen sin’s spread through creation, GOD’s call to Noah and the Great Flood, and finally GOD’s call to Abraham, through whose descendents the miraculous deliverer would come. We have seen the sin of Jacob’s sons, GOD’s call to the Tribe of Jacob (renamed Israel) to find safe haven in Egypt from the famine, to grow into a great nation, and the call of Jacob’s son Joseph to go before them into Egypt.
AT THIS POINT in our Biblical narrative, GOD has brought the sons of Israel out of the firepot of Egypt through the rather harsh training ground of the Wilderness, where one generation has died and their sons have survived them. GOD has strengthened with the Law of Moses and empowered them and commanded them to conquer the land.
As we shall see, they get several blocks down the road under the able leadership of Joshua. But when Joshua DIES, then they "run out of gas!"
B. CONQUEST OF THE LAND
As we follow the narrative of the conquest of the Promised Land, a question that is often asked is: "Did they or didn’t they?"
* The narrative of Joshua seems to say that, yes, Israel conquered ALL the land of Canaan, just as GOD commanded them.
* But Judges seems to tell us Israel left portions of Canaan without driving out all the people they found there, and without destroying all their possessions and their idols. Indeed, there was intermarriage with the local people.
So, which is correct? Does one book of the Bible say one thing, and another book something else? (Some people use this puzzle to claim that the Bible cannot be trusted.)
Listen carefully in what follows to the answer to this question!
After Moses’ death, the LORD spoke to Joshua words of encouragement -
"Every place on which the sole of your foot treads, I have given it to you, just as I spoke to Moses. - - -
"No man will be able to stand before you all the days of your life. Just as I have been with Moses, I will be with you; I will not fail you or forsake you.
"Be strong and courageous, for you shall give this people possession of the land which I swore to their fathers to give them.
"Only be strong and very courageous; be careful to do according to all the law which Moses My servant commanded you; do not turn from it to the right or to the left, so that you may have success wherever you go." (Josh.1:3, 5-7a)
Before they crossed the River Jordan to enter the land, Joshua sent two men as spies to view the land, especially Jericho. But when the king of Jericho discovered they had come and sent some men to search for them, a harlot Rahab hid them and sent the searchers elsewhere. Then Rahab spoke to the spies, saying it was known how GOD has given Israel the land, and concerning the miraculous crossing when the Red Sea was dried up. She sought a promise that, in return for her help, they would spare her father’s household, a pledge which the spies willingly gave. (Josh.2)
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There followed the miraculous crossing of the River Jordan, in which the waters some distance upstream, which would flow strongly that time of year, stood and rose up in one heap, the moment the feet of the priests carrying the Ark touched the water. In this way, the people crossed opposite Jericho. (Josh.3).
[Note that the miracle here is not that the water stopped, for the Jordan often stops due to mud, but rather the timing of the event.]
Next there was the remarkable scene at Jericho, which was a fortified city. The LORD instructed Joshua that they were simply to march around the city for six days, all the men prepared for war. The priests were to blow their trumpets, but no man must otherwise make a sound. And on the seventh day, when the priests blew the trumpets with a long blast, Joshua said to the people, "shout!" And when the people did shout with a great shout, the wall of the city fell flat. (Josh.6:1-21)
Joshua warned the people that everything in the city was under the ban and belonged to the LORD, that they must not take anything under the ban. All the gold and silver and articles of bronze should go into the treasury of the LORD. And only Rahab and her household should live.
The city was indeed utterly destroyed, everything and everyone in the city. Only Rahab and her household were rescued by the two spies. (Josh.6:1-25)
Then a curse was spoken against Jericho, saying that the man who rebuilds the city of Jericho, with the loss of his first-born would he lay its foundation, and with the loss of his youngest son would he set up its gates. (Josh.6:26)
Indeed, in the days of King Ahab (who married Jezebel), a Bethlehemite named Hiel rebuilt Jericho. But his first-born died as he laid its foundation, and his youngest son died as he set up its gates. (1 Kings 16:34)
Today, there is a city called Jericho, on the road which leads east from Jerusalem. But archaeologists have never been able to locate what is left of the ancient fortified city.
Following the success at Jericho, Joshua moved the army of Israel quickly to Ai, but was soundly defeated. When Joshua cried out, the LORD answered.
"Rise up! Why have you fallen on your face, for Israel has sinned and they have even taken some things under the ban. Therefore the sons of Israel cannot stand before their enemies." (Josh.7:10-11)
The LORD caused the people to be chosen by lot, first by tribe, then by family, then by household. In this way, Achan was discovered, and he confessed to stealing silver, a beautiful cloak, and a bar of gold. He and his family were stoned and were burned with fire. (Josh.7: 14-26)
Once more Ai was attacked, but this time with success. (Josh.8:1-29)
3. Covenant with Gibeon
Now, when the inhabitants of Gibeon heard what Joshua had done to Jericho and Ai, they acted deceitfully. Dressing as travelers, they dressed in worn out clothes, took worn out wineskins, took dry and crumbled bread, and went to Joshua at Gilgal claiming to come from afar. Appearing as strangers wishing to move into the land, they asked Joshua to make a covenant with them. Joshua, without first asking of the LORD, made a covenant with them to let them live in peace. (But in the Law, Israel was not allowed to make such a covenant.) (Exod.34:12,15)
But after 3 days, their deceit was discovered. Israel did not strike them because of the PROMISE, though they made them hewers of wood and drawers of water for Israel. (Josh.9)
4. Southern and Northern Kings
Now the five Southern Kings heard what Gibeon had done, and they gathered together and fought against Gibeon. When Joshua heard of it, his army marched all night from Gilgal, he came upon them suddenly, and struck them so they fled from the ascent to the descent of Beth-horon, where the LORD rained down large hailstones from heaven.
As he pursued them, Joshua called to the LORD, and the sun stood still at Gibeon, and the moon in the valley of Aijalon, until Israel had conquered their enemies. (There is no day like it that has been recorded, when the sun stopped in the sky and did not go down for about a day.)
(Who said GOD doesn’t act in history?)
The five kings fled and hid themselves in a cave at Makkedah. The unusual caves there are the great Bell Caves made of sandstone, hollowed out by water, in which there is a small opening at the top, like a huge jug. When the kings were discovered hiding there, Joshua ordered the small opening sealed with a huge stone until the fighting was done. After that they were brought out and Joshua put them to death. (Josh.10:1-27)
Then Joshua moved on without delay and he captured and destroyed five cities of Lachish, Gezer, Eglon, Hebron and Debir.
Next, Joshua struck the Negev, the hill country, the lowlands, the slopes, and all the kings. He destroyed all who breathed, as the LORD commanded. When the four Northern Kings heard of what Joshua had done, they came out with very many horses and chariots to fight against Israel. Joshua came upon them suddenly by the waters of Merom. The LORD delivered them into the hand of Israel, so that they defeated them, and pursued them, and struck them until no survivor was left. (Josh.11:1-9)
5. Work Completed
The Hebrew Scriptures tell us that in all this, Joshua left nothing undone that the LORD had commanded Moses. (Josh.11:15)
Yet when Joshua was old and advanced in years, very much of the land remained to be possessed. (Josh.13:1) So it was allotted as an inheritance (Josh.13:6), as well as the designation of the cities of refuge (Josh.20:3)
And in Joshua’s final message to the people (Josh.23-24), Joshua assured them that, so long as they did all that is written in the Law, and not to associate with the nations around them or to follow their gods, the LORD would surely drive them out before the sons of Israel.
But if they would ever turn back and cling to those nations, the LORD would no longer drive out tthose nations from before them, that -
"- - - they shall be a snare and a trap to you, and a whip on your sides and thorns in your eyes, until you perish from off this good land which the LORD your God has given you. (Josh.23:5-13)
Joshua said -
"And if it is disagreeable in your sight to serve the LORD, choose for yourselves today whom you will serve: whether the gods which your fathers served which were beyond the River, or the gods of the Amorites in whose land you are living. But as for me and my house, we will serve the LORD." (Josh.24:15)
C. AFFLICTION IN THE LAND
1. What Wasn’t Done
But after the death of Joshua, the land was not subdued as the LORD had commanded. Consequently, Israel was afflicted.
* Judah succeeded to capture Bezek, Hebron;
* For Debir, Caleb gave his daughter to Othniel;
* House of Joseph captured Bethel;
* Gaza was taken, but Benjamin did not drive out the Jebusites from Jerusalem;
* Manasseh did not take possession of Beth-shean, or Taanach, or Dor, or Ibleam, or Meggido;
* Ephraim did not drive out Gezer;
* Zebulun did not drive out Ketron, or Nahalol;
* Asher did not drive out Acco, or Sidon, or Ahlab, or Achzib, or Helban, or Aphik, or Rehob; and,
*Naphtali did not drive out Beth-Shemesh, or Beth-anath. (Judg.1:27-33)
It should not be a surprise, then, after all that GOD had said, that there should come judgment. The anger of the LORD burned against Israel and He said -
"Because this nation has transgressed My covenant which I commanded their fathers, and has not listened to My voice,
"I also will no longer drive out before them any of the nations which Joshua left when he died,
"in order to test Israel by them, whether they will keep the way of the LORD to walk in it as their fathers did, or not." (Judg.2:20a-22)
Joshua died and they buried him. And when all that generation were gathered to their fathers, there arose another generation after them who did not know the LORD. Then the sons of Israel did evil and served the Ba’als. (3)
As a result, they were afflicted by plunderers, in the downward spiral of Israel. The LORD would raise up judges who delivered them. But when a judge died, they would turn back and act more corruptly. (Judg.2:11-23)
We recount six cycles of Israel’s downward spiral. (There is a 7th recorded, the Judge Shamgar, about whom only one verse appears.)
The sons of Israel intermarried with the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, the Jebusites, and served the Ba’als and the Ashteroth. So the LORD sold them into the hands of the king of Mesopotamia for 8 years. Then the LORD raised up a deliverer, Othniel, son of Caleb’s younger brother, who judged Israel. He went to war against the king of Mesopotamia, and he prevailed. (Judg.3:5-10)
When Israel AGAIN did evil in the sight of the LORD, Eglon king of Moab joined with Ammon and Amalek, and they defeated Israel and possessed the city of the palm trees, which is Jericho. Israel served Eglon 18 years.
When the people cried to the LORD, He raised up Ehud, a left-handed man, who used to carry the tribute from Israel to Eglon.
One day, when Ehud went to present the tribute, he called Eglon aside in his tent with a secret message. But when Eglon was alone with him, Ehud reached for his sword inside his cloak with his left hand and drove him completely through with a two-edged sword. Afterward, Israel pursued the Moabites, and no one escaped. (Judg. 3:12-31)
4. Deborah & Jael
After Ehud died, Israel continued to do evil, so they were afflicted by Jabin king of Canaan, whose general was Sisera. With 900 iron chariots, he oppressed the sons of Israel for 20 years.
Now Deborah, a prophetess who was then judging Israel, called to Barak. For the LORD commanded Barak to take an army to Mt. Tabor, where he would defeat Sisera at the river Kishon. But Barak said, he would go only if Deborah would go with him. Deborah replied that she would go with Barak, but a woman would defeat Sisera. When Israel pursued Sisera so he fled and hid in a tent, Jael the wife of a Kenite in whose tent Sisera hid, drove a tent peg into his chest, killing him. (Judg.4-5)
When Israel once again did evil in the sight of the LORD, Midian afflicted Israel for 7 years. Each time that Israel sowed crops, the Midianites with the Amalekites would come to destroy the crops as far as Gaza, as well as sheep, oxen and donkeys. Consequently, they were forced in hide in caves.
When the sons of Israel cried to the LORD, He sent the Angel of the LORD to speak to Gideon, who was the least of the tribe of Manasseh, beating the wheat underground in a winepress in order to save it from the Midianites. The Angel commanded Gideon, "Go in your strength. Have I not sent you?" (Judg.6:14) Gideon asked for a sign for himself, which the Angel provided. The Angel commanded Gideon to tear down his father’s altar to Ba’al (though Gideon needed 10 men with him for courage!). Gideon assembled the people and then asked GOD for two signs to prove to the people.
Finally, when the LORD saw that Gideon had too many volunteers, he subjected them to two tests, so only 300 are left. In this way, the people would know the victory would not be theirs by their OWN strength, but by the LORD’s hand. Gideon’s army approached the enemy camp by night with torches and pots, and the LORD frightened the enemy with a terrifying dream. Gideon’s army was victorious. (Judg.6:1-8:18)
Once more, because Israel served the Ba’als and the Ashteroth, the LORD sold them into the hands of the Philistines for 18 years. When the sons of Israel repented to GOD, he raised up a mighty warrior Jephthah. But he was also the son of a harlot, and consequently repugnant in the sight of his tribe Gilead.
When Jephthah raised up an army to fight against the Ammonites, he made a brash vow in praying for victory, saying,
"If Thou wilt indeed give the sons of Ammon into my hand,
"then it shall be that whatever comes out of the doors of my house to meet me when I return in peace from the sons of Ammon, it shall be the LORD'S, and I will offer it up as a burnt offering." (Judg.11:30a-31)
After his victory, on his return, the first he met was his one and only daughter! After she spent two months in the mountains, on her return Jephthah fulfilled his vow. (Judg.11:1-12:15)
As Israel’s sins continued, the sons of Israel were afflicted by the Philistines. In this case, however, the judge which the LORD raised up was another sort of person altogether, the strong man Samson.
The story of Samson is well known. We shall not recount it here. What is so strange is that the LORD would raise up for a judge one like Samson, who was wayward in so many ways. We focus on one aspect of his calling, which makes his choice doubly curious.
Samson’s parents, Manoah the Danite and his wife, at first were without any children. Then the Angel of the LORD announced that the barren woman would conceive and give birth to a son, and that he should be a Nazirite to GOD throughout his life. There occur several events in the narrative that confirm to this couple that this was indeed the Angel of the LORD.
Now a Nazirite, who is set apart for GOD, is to be holy and upright. Yet Samson was far from these. Nevertheless, the final act of Samson, when he pulled down the pillars of the Philistine Temple to Dagon, accomplished judgment on the Philistines. (Judg.13-16)
8. "No King"
There is much more which could be said by means of examples, about the sins of Israel during the time of the Judges. But the following, which appears at the very end of Judges, says enough!
"In those days there was no king in Israel; everyone did what was right in his own eyes." (Judg.21:25)
And in those years - symbolically it seems - we lose track of the 'seed of the woman,’ the miraculous deliverer.
D. DAVID, SHEPHERD AND KING
At this point in our OT Survey, we shall skip over much time.
The message at the end of Judges - "no king" - seems spiritual much more than a matter of Israel’s governance. The writer of those words, most likely Samuel, who was the last of the Judges of Israel and who established the first school for Prophets, in our own opinion is not merely saying no earthly king had been appointed. He is saying that Israel seemed to have lost any sense of conscience, that Satan the great deceiver, who desired to make himself like GOD and to be God, had caused the sons of Israel to lose their internal compass, showing them Right from Wrong. Israel had lost sight of GOD Himself, later identified by Saul of Tarsus renamed Paul in the Br’it Hadashah, the "Good News," as the King Of Kings and Lord Of Lords (1 Tim.6:15), and by John in Revelations (Rev.17:14).
Sadly we must skip past the calling of Samuel, the remarkable narrative in which GOD Himself calls to this little boy in the temple at Shiloh in the dark of the night, GOD’s hand in history appearing once again.
We learn of GOD’s decree in that call, that the corrupt priest Eli would fall, literally, with his sons and all his house. (1 Sam.2:27-34; 4:17-18)
And in the description of the encounter with little Samuel, we suddenly seem to shake ourselves and awaken as if from a bad dream.
But the people call for a king, not for GOD Most High but for an earthly ruler, in order to be like the nations around them. GOD warns them through Samuel of the resulting oppression by such a king, and GOD’s response when they call to Him for help -
"Then you will cry out in that day because of your king whom you have chosen for yourselves, but the LORD will not answer you in that day." (1 Sam.8:18)
But this is David’s story, and we move on.
1. Saul as King
When the error becomes apparent, that they had anointed Saul as king - well meaning but foolish - things get so bad that Israel loses the Ark of GOD to the enemy the Philistines. (1 Sam.6) And as if that is not enough, after Saul disobeys GOD’s command through Samuel, GOD removes His Spirit from Saul, and Saul becomes mad! (1 Sam.16:1-16) things can’t get much worse!
2. Young David
At this point, we discover another young man, David, who seems to come out of nowhere. In the narrative of the search for Saul’s successor after GOD rejects Saul, we almost miss seeing David - after all, the youngest of eight sons of Jesse, tending sheep no less, the dirtiest and the least of all occupations. But from our first encounter with young David, GOD makes it clear that he is special in GOD’s eyes, who is one after GOD’s own heart. Even as we first meet him, David is anointed by Samuel to be King of Israel, and GOD’s Spirit comes upon him. (1 Sam.16:1-13)
Young David is called to play the harp and to sing before King Saul, to soothe the king’s troubled spirit. But for David’s trouble, Saul tries to run him through with a spear! (1 Sam.16:14-23; 18:10-11)
The Philistine champion, the giant Goliath, comes forth and challenges Israel to produce a defender to join with him in combat, in the process cursing Israel’s God. Young David, shielded only by the armor which is faith in GOD Most High, confronts Goliath and defeats him. (1 Sam.17)
When David is appointed a leader of King Saul’s army, the LORD is with him, so that David wins in battle. But the song they used to sing for David -
"Saul has slain his thousands,
and David his ten thousands,"
only makes Saul jealous, and Saul seeks to kill David. (1 Sam.18:7-8)
3. David Pursued
Numerous vignettes follow, which tell of David’s suffering. Saul pursues David, David obtains the sword of Goliath, David flees to Achish king of Gath before whom he acts insane as a disguise. Through all of this hardship, GOD was refining David. Yet all the while, David’s heart was righteous, for on two different occasions, David spared Saul’s life though he could have slain him. (1 Sam.24, 26)
We witness the gathering of David’s young men, his small but strong army of warriors; and the flight to the Philistines in Ziklag, in which they pretend to be enemies of Israel. (1 Sam.27:1-6)
4. David as King
Following King Saul’s death in a battle with the Philistines, David lamented the death of Saul and Saul’s son Jonathan. David reigned in Hebron over the house of Judah. (2 Sam.1:12; 2:11)
There was a long war between Judah and the house of Saul, and while the head of Saul’s army Abner and David’s general Joab acted with deception and brutal murder, David throughout acted righteously with Saul’s survivors. (2 Sam.4:1-12)
Then all the tribes of Israel came to David at Hebron, and they anointed David king over all the 12 tribes of Israel. Soon after, David captured Jerusalem by sending spies through the water tunnel. From that day, David lived in the stronghold in Jerusalem, called the City of David. (2 Sam.5:1-9)
David grew greater and greater, as the LORD blessed him. David went up against the Philistines and defeated them. And Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David with cedar trees and carpenters and stone masons, and they built a house for David. (2 Sam.5:12-13)
SADLY, THERE IS the incident of the death of an innocent, as David sought to bring the Ark of GOD into the City of David with him. along the way, as one of the attendants reached out to steady the Ark as it teetered, about to fall, GOD struck the attendant with fire. Fearing GOD’s anger, David stopped and instead took it to a house along the way. GOD proceeded to bless the owner of that house. (2 Sam.6:1-12a)
When David saw GOD’s blessing upon that house, David took courage once more. Once again he proceeded to bring the Ark into the City of David with him, this time with great rejoicing as he danced before the LORD. He placed the Ark inside a tent which he had prepared for it, and made sacrifices to the LORD. (2 Sam.6:12b-19))
5. Covenant with David
But David sought something more for the Ark. Seeing that he himself lived in a house of cedar, David sought to move the Ark from the tent and to build a house for it. In a remarkable exchange with David, GOD responds that the LORD has not required a structure in which to reside, that He dwelt with the sons of Israel in a tent while they traveled in the Wilderness.
But in an important play on words concerning David’s "house", GOD announces His pledge to David -
* That GOD would make David’s name great;
* That GOD would plant Israel in a place He would make safe;
* That the LORD would make a house for David;
* That a descendant of David would build a "house for My Name;"
*That the throne of that descendant’s kingdom would be forever. (2 Sam.7:9a-14)
The passage concludes with these important words -
"But My lovingkindness shall not depart from him, as I took it away from Saul, whom I removed from before you.
"And your house and your kingdom shall endure before Me forever; your throne shall be established forever." (2 Sam.7:15-16)
All these words should be read with the words from Psalm 89 -
"I have made a covenant with My chosen; I have sworn to David My servant,
I will establish your seed forever, And build up your throne to all generations." (Ps.89:3-4)
6. Meaning of the Covenant
First of all, the words of 2 Sam.7:15 indicate this is an ETERNAL UNCONDITIONAL covenant, one that GOD Himself would never revoke.
Second, with these words, we suddenly discover the 'seed of the woman’ once more, the miraculous deliverer, who is also spoken of in Jacob’s blessing to his sons (in particular to Judah) (Gen.49:10), and Balaam’s 4th blessing on the approaching horde of the sons of Israel (Num.24:17).
Taken altogether, these passages mean -
* David’s son but not David, would build the Temple for GOD’s Name. (We learn in another passage the reason David could not build it, that he had blood on his hands.)
* GOD would make David’s name great.
* David’s seed (singular in the Hebrew, indicating a single person) would last forever.
* David’s throne would be forever.
THIS, THEN is the 'seed of the woman.’ Here is revealed that the Holy Seed would pass through David’s line, that He would be a DESCENDANT of David.
We also make the remarkable discovery for the first time that this seed, this PERSON, would LIVE FOREVER!
We already understand from Genesis 3 that this descendant must have miraculous powers, in order to overcome the miraculous powers of the great deceiver Satan, the one who sought to be LIKE GOD, to BE God.
The UNMISTAKABLE CONCLUSION from these clues is that the deliverer must be of GOD Himself. Through Proverbs 30:4 and through numerous other passages, we know this miraculous deliverer, the Son of David, this Messiah, is none other than the Son of GOD!
Son of David and Son of GOD!
WE WOULD BE remiss indeed, after this wonderful promise to David, if we passed by the remarkable scene that immediately followed.
In response, David went into the tent where the Ark was placed, the Holy of Holies, and sat before the LORD to speak to Him. Understand that no one except the High Priest could safely enter the Holy of Holies, and then only once a year after an extended ritual of cleansing and preparation. Those who attempted for example to offer unclean fire were immediately destroyed by the LORD.
How was David able to do such a thing and live? It was not because the one who entered was a king. It was because he was David, after GOD’s own heart!
DAVID WAS considered by GOD to be righteous. He did what was right, in regards to Saul’s house after the king’s death, with regard to atonement for the Gibeonites previously slain by Saul, and in many other matters, even as Abner and Joab schemed and murdered. David was a man after GOD’s own heart. (1 Sam.13:14)
Yet David also sinned. We are presented with two major sins of David, the consequences of which affected all Israel.
7. Sin with Bathsheba
In the first example, when David sinned with Bathsheba and she was with child, David sought to murder Bathsheba’s husband Uriah, a righteous man, by having him placed in the front line of the battle, where the enemy might kill him. (2 Sam.11)
When the prophet Nathan confronted him, David confessed his sin. As a result, the LORD took away David’s sin, but nevertheless decreed a judgment, that the sword would henceforth never depart from David’s house. Also, GOD would raise up an evil within David’s own house. Also, David’s illegitimate son by Bathsheba dies.
8. Absalom’s Plot
There follows the tragic narrative of David’s son Absalom, in which Absalom takes the law into his own hands to avenge the rape of his sister Tamar by murdering his half-brother Amnon. Absalom flees judgment by his father King David, and becomes estranged from his father. As a result, Absalom’s tortured mind devises a conspiracy against the King. (2 Sam.13-14:24)
King David flees Jerusalem with his household, as Absalom pursues the King his father, seeking even to KILL him. We skip over many details of this lurid tail, as Joab David’s general pursues and kills Absalom. (2 Sam.15:13-18:16) David grieves deeply at his son’s death.
As David was returning to Jerusalem, there was a worthless fellow named Sheba who blew a trumpet and called out along the way.
"We have no portion in David. Nor do we have inheritance in the son of Jesse;
Every man to his tents, O Israel!" (2 Sam.20:1)
We will return to this incident later.
9. Sin of the Census
In a second of David’s major sins, Satan moved David to conduct a census of Israel, one not authorized by GOD. (2 Chron.21:1)
GOD responded to David’s sin, asking which of three ways would David choose that GOD judge him -
* 7 years of famine
* 3 months of flight from David’s foes, or
* 3 days of pestilence in the land.
(Imagine being given the choice of your poison!)
David chose the third, so the LORD sent a pestilence in the land, and 70,000 men from Dan in the north to Be’ersheba in the south died.
When the Angel of GOD stretched out His hand toward Jerusalem to destroy it, the LORD called out for the Angel to stop, saying it was enough.
When David called to GOD for mercy on the people, that GOD’s judgment should instead fall on David himself, GOD sent a message saying that David should erect an altar to the LORD at the threshing floor of Araunah, where the Angel stood.
David bought the threshing floor from Araunah for a price, and built an altar and offered burnt offerings there. In this way, the LORD was moved by David’s entreaty and the people were spared. (2 Sam.24)
10. Site of the Temple
It is worth noting that this site, the place where the Angel was standing, is the same site where David later prepared - and Solomon built - the Temple of Jerusalem.
This is also the same mountain where GOD had previously told Abraham to bring his son Isaac, his only son, in order to offer him as a sacrifice. (Gen.22)
This is a portion of a more extensive historical overview prepared by Mr. Charles Quigley. Select the more inclusive "sessions" for the TANAKH SURVEY (from the menu on the left) to view the overview in its entirety. This historical overview was originally created for oral presentations that cover Israel's history from its origin to a period leading to the 'Current Era' (CE). See note below on use of this presentation material.
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