Time Line - Historical Overview
TANAKH - OLD TESTAMENT SURVEY
Welcome to the SECOND in a series of talks on a Survey of Old Testament History (the Hebrew Scriptures or TANACH) as viewed through Jewish eyes.
We begin this discussion with the transfer of the tribe of Israel to a place of refuge in Egypt, extending through 430 years of captivity. We will briefly explore the remarkable departure from Egypt of the Sons of Israel, now grown to be a mighty nation, and the 40 years of wandering in the wilderness.
IN OUR PREVIOUS session, we met G-d Most High, Creator and Ruler of all the universe. A continuing theme of these talks is that our GOD - God of the Jews and Gentiles - is not a God far off but is very near, working in history even to this day. In today’s session, we will see GOD with the Jewish people up close - frighteningly close!
A second theme concerns the Great Fall of Man in the garden, and the progressive outworking of the promise of GOD in the "seed of the woman," a miraculous deliverer who would someday come to rescue all mankind and to restore all creation to its originally intended state.
Regrettably, this series extends only up to the moment of the arrival of that miraculous deliverer. Hopefully a future speaker in this series will pick up on the themes we have outlined here and will complete the narrative of this story - GOD’s Plan in History, as described in GOD’s Word, a word that can be trusted, which is true!
1. His Beginning
In the 430 years that the sons of Israel remained in Egypt, at the start settling in Goshen as a place of refuge and separated from the Egyptians, their condition went from good to bad to worse. As the famine which brought them there grew worse, all the people in Egypt gave all their possessions in order to buy food, then finally sold themselves as slaves to Pharaoh. (Gen.47:13-25)
Soon Pharaoh died and there came a new Pharaoh who had not known Joseph. Archaeology tells us this was a time of building of the great monuments and pyramids in Egypt. Now this new Pharaoh, seeing that the sons of Israel, who were originally 70 in number - multiplied exceedingly so that they numbered more than the Egyptians - put the sons of Israel to hard labor to assist in that construction, so that they would not join with the enemies of Egypt in wartime. (Exod.1:8-14)
Indeed, the Hebrews had become so many that Pharaoh ordered the midwives to slay any Hebrew infants who were male, only sparing the female infants. But the midwives allowed the male infants to live, so Pharaoh ordered instead that the male infants be cast into the Nile. (Exod.1:15-22)
In GOD’s own time, a certain male infant of a Jewish couple was set adrift in a wicker basket among the reeds by the bank of the Nile. The daughter of Pharaoh discovered the infant floating in the basket, and decided to raise the infant as her son, in the household of Pharaoh himself! Named Moses, he was given all the benefits of Pharaoh’s house, the best education, and access to the great library of Egypt, with its historical records of all the known world. (Exod.2:1-15)
2. Flight from Pharaoh
When Moses had grown up and knew he was Hebrew, he witnessed the great suffering of his brethren. But one day, without GOD’s direction or authority, he slew an Egyptian who was beating a Hebrew and hid the Egyptian in the sand. But when the murder was discovered, Moses fled from Pharaoh across the great Sinai desert to the east, until at last he reached Midian, where Reuel (or Jethro) the priest of Midian gave him shelter. (Exod.2:11-21)
Moses, who had been raised in the household of Pharaoh and had been given the very best in Egypt, spends the next 40 years in Midian as nothing more than a lowly shepherd. There he led the flock to the west side of the Wilderness, and came to Horeb the mountain of GOD. (Exod.3:1)
There GOD appears to Moses, not in a vision but in a miraculous bush which burns brightly with fire, but is not consumed. When Moses sees this remarkable thing, he turns aside to see what it might be, and when GOD calls his name out of the bush, Moses replies, "Here I am." (1)
GOD reveals to Moses the cry of affliction of GOD’s people out of Egypt, and charges Moses to bring the people out of Egypt to a good and spacious land, a land flowing with milk and honey. The sign to Moses that this will take place, GOD reveals, is that they shall worship GOD at Mt. Horeb. When Moses asks what he should tell the people is the name of the 'God of your fathers,’ GOD reveals for the first time the personal name of GOD: "I AM," that is, the eternal self-existent GOD.
[In the Hebrew, the VERY NAME of GOD is written as (Aleph Hay Vav Hay) or YAHWEH. From this transliteration comes the name "JEHOVAH" which appears in many English translations, in place of "the LORD."]
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Returning to the burning bush, Moses resists the command of GOD Himself to go down to Egypt, to speak to powerful Pharaoh of Egypt the words commanded by GOD, asking "What if they (the Hebrews) do not believe me?", and saying that Moses is slow of speech and tongue.
At this moment, GOD’s anger burns fiercely against Moses, though he replies about the signs that GOD will give Moses to perform, and about Aaron who will go with Moses to speak for him. (Exod.3:1-4:14)
[For my part, I have always been impressed with the scene of GOD’s anger at this moment out of the burning bush against Moses. I think the animated film "Prince of Egypt," depicts this moment very well - GOD’s voice rising fiercely in His rage and anger, even as the flames envelope Moses’ figure ready to consume, then to envelope him in tenderness.]
[To my mind, an appropriate verse appears in Psalm 139 -
" LORD, Thou hast searched me and known me.
Thou dost know when I sit down and when I rise up; Thou dost undOherstand my thought from afar.
Thou dost scrutinize my path and my lying down, And art intimately acquainted with all my ways.
Even before there is a word on my tongue, Behold, O LORD, Thou dost know it all.
Thou hast enclosed me behind and before, And laid Thy hand upon me." (Ps.139:1-5) ]
3. The Signs in Egypt
Moses returns to Egypt with his wife and sons and the staff which GOD has given him as a sign, meeting Aaron along the way. Moses and Aaron present themselves to Pharaoh saying,
"Thus says the LORD, the God of Israel,
'Let My people go, that they may celebrate a feast to Me in the wilderness.’ " (Exod.5:1)
"Who is the LORD that I shall obey His voice to let Israel go? I do not know the LORD, and besides, I will not let Israel go!" (Exod.5:2)
The LORD then proceeds to demonstrate to Pharaoh, through signs and wonders by Moses who employs the staff of GOD, Who it is that is the LORD whom Pharaoh does not know. In these ten miracles - three of which Pharaoh’s magicians duplicate but seven they cannot - GOD shows His supremacy over each of the ten gods of Egypt. (Exod.5-10)
Finally, when Pharaoh’s heart is hardened (just as GOD had promised), GOD sends the angel of death against the first-born of all Egypt - all those in houses not marked with the blood of an unblemished male lamb a year old, on the lintels and doorposts of their houses. Even Pharaoh’s own son died that night. Finally, Pharaoh relents and lets the Hebrews go. (Exod 11:1-13:6)
I could spend hours speaking about the significance of all aspects of that night, and about the relation to the "seed of the woman," the miraculous deliverer, who in future would come as the salvation not only of the Hebrews, but of all the world - all who would receive Him.
Please understand the following -
* The ten signs which Moses performed were for the benefit of Pharaoh.
* The death of the first-born and the Passover of the angel of death was intended as a sign for Pharaoh and for the Hebrews.
But there was one more sign to come!
Picture this if you will! GOD led the sons of Israel out of Egypt not by the easy path, which led toward the coast of the Mediterranean, but instead by a round-about route through a wilderness east of the Nile River, to camp near the Red Sea. This was to mislead Pharaoh into thinking the Hebrews did not know their way, that they could be recaptured and brought back. (Exod.14:1-4)
Picture this! GOD led the Hebrews by day with a pillar of cloud, and by night with a pillar of fire. (Exod 13:21) But consider - where does one find such a sight ordinally in nature, one that moves?
And when Pharaoh chased after them with all his horses and chariots, the Angel of GOD moved the pillar of cloud between the Hebrews and the on-rushing Egyptians. When the Hebrews cried out in fear, Moses replied,
"Stand by and see the salvation of the LORD which He will accomplish for you today. The Egyptians which you see today you will never see again!" (Exod.14:13)
At the LORD’s command, Moses lifted up the staff of GOD, and the waters of the Red Sea parted before them, allowing them to pass through in safety. When the Egyptians pursued them over the exposed sea bottom, the LORD spread confusion in their midst. At the LORD’s command, Moses lifted up his staff once more, and the waters closed over all the Egyptians, totally destroying all of Pharaoh’s horses and chariots. (Exod.14:21-30)
* The parting of the Red Sea was intended primarily for all the nations.
For example, Balak, king of Moab, fearful of the Hebrews who came out of Egypt, later asked the foolish prophet Balaam to prophesy against the Hebrews. (Num.22:106) The harlot Rahab in Jericho also had heard of the crossing of the Red Sea. (Josh.2:8-9)
4. Trip to the Holy Mountain
No sooner were the people out of Egypt and safely across the Red Sea, though, but they began to 'kvetch,’ to complain. (For my part, I don’t think the LORD minds so much if we complain. I think He much prefers that we tell Him what is on our hearts!)
However in this case, the Hebrews on the way to the holy mountain were another thing altogether! Understand, they had just left slavery in Egypt!
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They grumbled for food. In response -
* GOD brought them bread from heaven, like coriander seed,
appearing after the dew.
(The Hebrews did not know what it was, so they called it "what-thing," which is manna in Hebrew. (Exod.16:31))
* GOD brought them meat from heaven, quail actually. (We will hear a little about that later.)
But GOD imposed certain rules concerning the gathering of the manna. (Exod.17:16-30)
* They were to gather 6 days only;
* Leave none until morning;
* On the 6th day, gather twice the amount;
* Gather none on the 7th day.
This was to test them, to see if they would do as GOD required, that GOD would indeed provide for them the 7th day on which there should be no work. For if they ate leftover manna the first six days, it was rotten and not fit to eat.
Once again, they complained about water (1st time), wishing they had never left Egypt. In response -
* GOD commanded Moses to go to a certain place and strike the rock, and water poured forth. Moses did so and properly gave the credit to GOD. (Exod.17:6)
When Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, came to visit, he saw that Moses was tiring from judging all the disputes. Jethro proposed a system of lesser judges to lift the burden of all but the most difficult cases from Moses. (Exod.18:13-23)
5. Worship at the Mountain
When the people arrived at the holy mountain at Horeb, GOD demonstrated His power and glory by a massive display of fire and pouring smoke and earthquake. And GOD also spoke to Moses out of a pillar of cloud in the presence of the people. GOD spoke to the people the Ten Commandments, the first of the 613 laws and regulations and ordinances which form the Mosaic Law of the Sinai Covenant. (Exod.19:16-20)
But the people responded in fear -
"And all the people perceived the thunder and the lightning flashes and the sound of the trumpet and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled and stood at a distance.
"Then they said to Moses, 'Speak to us yourself and we will listen; but let not God speak to us, lest we die.’ " (Exod.20:18-19)
But Moses said to the people,
"Do not be afraid; for God has come in order to test you, and in order that the fear of Him may remain with you, so that you may not sin." (Exod.20:20)
So the people stood at a distance, while Moses approached the thick cloud where God was. (Exod.20:18-19)
It has been this way ever since with the people, those who fear GOD but do not want to get close to GOD for fear He will consume them with fire!
6. Mosaic Law (Sinai Covenant)
At this point, it is appropriate to introduce the Mosaic (Written) Law itself. Actually there are two editions, so to speak.
* The first is part of the SINAI Covenant, delivered at the Holy Mountain of Horeb. It appears in Exodus 21-24, almost all of Leviticus, and Numbers 3-10, 27-30, and 32-36. It was designed for the people as they wandered in the Wilderness, a nomadic people, on the way to Mt. Nebo.
* The Second is the so-called PALESTINIAN Covenant, in Deuteronomy 6-26, delivered at Mt. Nebo, across the Jordan River from Jericho, in which Moses describes changes to the Law (while explaining it one more time), designed for the people after they settled in the land of Canaan.
The Law consists of Civil laws, Social laws, Military laws , Ecological laws, and Religious laws. A few are worthy of brief note.
Feasts and Observances of Israel.
There are 3 principal feasts (Exod.23:1-17), which all
males must attend.
* Unleavened Bread (just after Passover)
* Shavuot (50th Day - Pentecost); and,
* Succhot - Feast of the Ingathering
There are 7 major feasts (Lev.23; Deut.16)
* Pesach - Passover
* Feast of Unleavened Bread
* Feast of First Fruits of the Barley Harvest
* Shavuot - Feast of 50th Day (Pentecost)
* Rosh Hashanah - Feast of Trumpets
* Yum Kippor - Day of Atonement
* Succhot - Feast of Tabernacles,
(Feast of the Ingathering)
Other observances include -
* Shabbat - Day of rest, no work performed
* Seventh (Sabbatical) Year - Year of rest for
* Fiftieth Year (Jubilee) - All debts forgiven,
slaves go free
Still other observances - not part of the Mosaic
* Purim - Event occurred during the Babylonian captivity, observes destruction of 1st Gentile who tried to destroy the Hebrews (Esther).
* Chanukah - (Feast of Lights) Occurs between Old and New Testaments. Prophesied in Daniel 11:35. Mentioned in John 10:22 as the "Feast of Dedication".
The LORD makes special provision for sojourners in the land (Lev.25:24-55), who are given certain rights and obligations.
In a passage in Leviticus devoted to various sins concerning the shedding of blood, the LORD, almost as an afterthought, includes an important explanation/instruction to Israel -
"For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood by reason of the life that makes atonement."(Lev.17:11)
THIS ONE LAW plays an ESSENTIAL role in the mission of the "seed of the woman," the miraculous deliverer whom GOD promises would come to crush the head of the serpent, that is to conquer Satan completely.
Another important passage appears in Leviticus concerning ownership of the Land. According to this passage -
"The land, moreover, shall not be sold permanently, for the land is Mine; for you are but aliens and sojourners with Me." (Lev.25:23)
That is, GOD has given the land as part of an ETERNAL IRREVOCABLE covenant to the Hebrews for their use. But they cannot sell it, for they do not have title to it!
Therefore, the claim by Satan which appears among others in Luke 4:6 -
"And the devil said to Him, 'I will give You all this domain and its glory; for it has been handed over to me, and I give it to whomever I wish,"
is pure deception! Satan was not at that time or ever been granted ownership of the Land!
God and the people then ratify the Covenant (Exod 24). During that ceremony at Mt. Horeb, GOD reveals to the people a remarkable vision of GOD Himself, with a pavement of sapphire at his feet, as clear as the sky itself. Yet the people were not destroyed at the very sight of GOD! (Exod.24:9-18)
GOD later calls Moses to come up on the mountain where GOD gives Moses two stone tables on which GOD has WRITTEN the Law (Exod.24:12). (Thus the Hebrews know that the Law was written by the very finger of GOD!) WE interpret this to mean the ENTIRE Law. In JEWISH TRADITION, however, the two tablets referred to HERE contain ONLY the Ten Commandments.
But sadly, the people do not wait for Moses to return from the mountain, and instead begin worship of the golden idol of a calf. Moses returns to that camp, and at the LORD’s command, causes about 3,000 of the Hebrews to be slain that day. (Exod.32:1-6; 26-28)
Moses returns to the mountain and writes 2 new tablets of stone. (Exod.34:27-28)
At that time, Moses asks GOD, if Moses has found favor in GOD’s sight, that Moses may know Him, so that Moses might find favor in GOD’s sight. Moses asks GOD to show Moses His Glory! GOD responds by calling Moses up to the top of the mountain, where GOD hides him in a cleft of the rock as He passes by. In that passage, GOD proclaims His nature -
"The LORD, the LORD God, compassionate and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in lovingkindness and truth;
"Who keeps lovingkindness (Hebr. "Chesed") for thousands, who forgives iniquity, transgression and sin; yet He will by no means leave the guilty unpunished, visiting the iniquity of fathers on the children and on the grandchildren to the third and fourth generations." (Exod.34:6a-7)
While Moses and the people remained at Mt. Horeb, GOD prescribed the building of the Tabernacle in the wilderness, the Tent of Meeting. It is worthwhile to note the action words -
* You shall construct (Exod.23:10-30:38);
* You shall place (Exod.40:1-15); and,
* Moses put/placed (Exod.40:16-33).
Along the way, GOD designates and empowers certain skilled artisans who are to perform the work (Exod.31:1-11).
The LORD ordered that a census be taken of every male 20 years old and upward who was able to go to war (the first of two censuses, Num.1-4. The second appears in Num.26) Then the people set out from the Wilderness of Sinai.
7. The People Complain
Grumbling resumed among the people, as certain greedy ones complained for meat. GOD sent quail from heaven - 2 cubits deep! (A cubit is the distance from the elbow to the finger tips - 17-1/2 to 21-1/2 inches.) The people ate meat for one month - and many died because of their greed. (Num 11)
Miriam and Aaron rebelled against Moses (for he had married a Cushite woman), saying, "Has the LORD spoken only through Moses?" But GOD came down in a pillar of cloud and called to all three, saying -
"If there is a prophet among you, I shall speak to him in a dream. - - - But with my servant Moses, I speak with him mouth to mouth. And he beholds the form of the LORD." (Num.12:6-8)
The LORD’s anger burned against Miriam and Aaron, and when He departed, Aaron saw that Miriam was leprous! When Moses prayed for Miriam to be restored, GOD healed Miriam, but she could only return after seven days. (Num.12)
8. The Spies’ Bad Report
Then the LORD commanded Moses to spy out the land of Canaan. When the 12 spies returned after 40 days (the people had already been wandering 1-1/2 years), they reported the land does indeed flow with milk and honey.
But ten of the twelve reported the sons of giants live there, that they could not prevail. Only Joshua and Caleb said they could take the land.
When the people wanted to turn back to Egypt, the anger of the LORD burned against them. But Moses pleaded -
"Then the Egyptians will hear of it - - - and they will tell it to the inhabitants of this land. - - - If you slay this people as one man, then the nations will say,
'Because the LORD could not bring this people into the land which He promised them by oath, so He slaughtered them in the wilderness.’ - - -
"Please pardon the iniquity of the people." (Num.14:14-16,19)
The LORD replied -
"Surely all the men who have seen My glory and My signs, which I performed in Egypt and in the wilderness, yet have put Me to the test these ten times and have not listened to My voice, shall by no means see the land which I swore to their fathers, nor shall any of those who spurned Me see it." (Num.14:22-23)
The LORD announced judgment -
* Their corpses would fall in that wilderness - all those from twenty years old and upward, who had grumbled against Him and who had rejected the land, not trusting in Him. (Num.14:29)
* But their children, whom they had said would become a prey, GOD would bring them into the Land, and they would know the land which the present people had rejected! (Num.14:31)
* The children would be shepherds for forty years in the wilderness, and they would suffer for the people’s unfaithfulness, until the people’s corpses lay in the wilderness. (Num.14:33)
Forty years they did wander in the wilderness. And the ten spies who returned with a bad report died of a plague, but Joshua and Caleb remained alive. (Num.14:36-38)
Hearing all this, the people tried to enter the land by their own strength, and they went up heedlessly to the ridge of the hill country, where the Canaanites and Amalekites saw them and struck them down. (Num.14:20-45)
9. The Grumbling Continues
As the people wandered, their grumbling continued. Korah, a grandson of Levi, along with Dathan, Abiram, and 250 others gathered together against Moses and Aaron, saying -
"You have gone far enough, for all the congregation are holy, every one of them, and the LORD is in their midst; so why do you exalt yourselves above the assembly of the LORD?" (Num.16:3)
Moses responded, instructing them each the next morning to bring their firepans (they were men of renown), put fire and incense on it, and to stand at the door of the Tent of Meeting. At that gathering, GOD Himself would show who is holy. Then Moses said,
"By this you shall know that the LORD has sent me to do all these deeds; for this is not my doing.
"If these men die the death of all men, or if they suffer the fate of all men, then the LORD has not sent me.
"But if the LORD brings about an entirely new thing and the ground opens its mouth and swallows them up with all that is theirs, and they descend alive into Sheol, then you will understand that these men have spurned the LORD." (Num.16:28-30)
Even as Moses spoke, the ground opened and swallowed them up - the men and all their possessions, and fire also came out from the LORD and consumed the men who were offering incense. After that, the people knew that no layman who is not a descendant of Aaron can come near to burn incense before the LORD. (Num.16:1-40)
But then the Congregation turned against Moses and Aaron saying that THEY had caused the deaths. (As though Moses and Aaron by themselves could call down the LORD’s fire and destruction on anyone they wished.)
GOD responded, calling Moses to separate himself from the people. GOD caused a plague to spread among them. But Moses told Aaron to take fire from the altar and incense as an atonement, and Aaron took his stand between the dead and the living, and the plague was stopped. (Num.16:41-48)
But so there would be no question who had priestly authority, GOD instructed each of the 12 heads of households, and Aaron of the tribe of Levi, to bring his own rod inscribed with his name to leave before the Ark of the Testimony in the Tent of Meeting. The next day, Aaron’s rod had sprouted with blossoms and ripe almonds, showing Aaron’s authority. (Num.17:1-11)
Once more, this time at Kadesh-Barnea, the people grumbled about water. GOD instructed Moses to assemble the people and to speak to the rock before him, to bring forth water.
But Moses disobeyed, and instead struck the rock twice, and water poured forth. Moses exclaimed in anger, "Shall we bring forth water for you out of this rock?" failing to give credit to GOD.
At this, GOD was very angry against Moses and Aaron, because they had not believed GOD and given Him the credit before the people. So GOD swore that neither Aaron nor Moses would bring the sons of Israel into the land. (Num.20:1-13)
Soon after, the people moved from Kadesh to Mt. Hor, where Aaron died and his mantle was given to Aaron’s son Eleazer. (Num.20:22-29) Earlier, Miriam died at Kadesh-Barnea. (Num.20:11)
When they set out from Mt. Hor to go around Edom, the people once more grumbled that there was no food or water. In response, GOD sent detestable fiery serpents that bit the people, so many died. When the people pleaded to Moses, GOD instructed him to prepare a bronze serpent, to set it high on a standard. It came about that if a serpent bit any man, when he looked upon the bronze image of this loathesome creature, he lived! (Num.21:4-9)
[Some in Israel many years later would look upon ANOTHER, considered disfigured and loathesome, and as a result would receive LIFE THAT IS ETERNAL!]
[It is not surprising that, many years later yet, the medical profession has adopted the serpent on a staff as the symbol of healing.]
10. Balaam and the Midianites
Finally, the sons of Israel arrived on the plains of Moab beyond the Jordan, opposite Jericho. Balak king of Moab and the elders of Midian became fearful, so Balak sent for the prophet Balaam to pay him to speak a curse against Israel, that Balak and the Midianites might defeat them in battle (Num.22-24)
(As though a prophet was a sort of magician, who could call down any curse he wished, that a prophet could manipulate GOD rather than serve Him!)
At this point there is the comic interlude between the foolish Balaam and his more intelligent donkey. When the donkey balked at the sight of the Angel of GOD blocking the way - whom Balaam didn’t see - the donkey speaks as Balaam is about to beat him. Finally, Balaam goes to meet to Balak, but only after receiving stern words from the Angel.
There are four events - three at the request of Balak - where Balaam speaks a prophecy about Israel. We see Balak consumed with rage, as Balaam speaks the prophecies, but not words that Balak wants to hear!
* In the first, Balaam speaks of Israel as a people that dwells apart, that is numerous. (Num.23:7-14)
* In the second, Balaam speaks of GOD as one Who does not change His mind, that there is the "shout of a king" among the Hebrews, that there is no divination against Israel, that Israel is a people like a lioness. (Num.23:18-24)
* In the third, Balaam describes how extensive would be the tents and dwelling-places of Israel, that Israel would be powerful as an ox and as a lion. And Balaam repeats a portion of GOD’s promise to Abram of Genesis 12:3 - They will be blessed who blesses Israel. And cursed is everyone who curses Israel. (Num.24:3-9)
But Balaam (at the LORD’s instruction) adds a message of his own that Balak certainly does not want to hear -
"I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near; A star shall come forth from Jacob, And a scepter shall rise from Israel, And shall crush through the forehead of Moab, And tear down all the sons of Sheth.
"And Edom shall be a possession. Seir, its enemies, also shall be a possession." Num.24:17)
Balaam was speaking, of course, of the "seed of the woman" and his ancestor King David, descendant of Judah.
Sad to say, this was not the end of the Balaam episode. For 'off-mike’ so to speak, he advised Balak of a way to destroy Israel. Acting on Balaam’s advice, the daughters of Moab began to entice the sons of Israel, so that the Hebrews began to sacrifice and to bow down to the Moabite gods.
In response, GOD called Moses to slay all those who joined themselves to Ba’al of Peor, and He sent a plague against them. But when Phinehas the son of Eleazer took a spear and ran through both an Israelite man and his Midianite woman with it, the plague was checked.(Num.25:1-9)
The LORD then commanded Moses and Eleazer to take a census for the second time of men 20 years and older able to fight. (Num.26)
11. Joshua Appointed Successor
Planning for the day when Moses would be taken up by GOD, the LORD appointed Joshua son of Nun to replace him. Moses commissioned him before the people.
The LORD instructed Moses to put some of his authority on him. Also, Joshua should stand before Eleazer the priest who would inquire before the LORD. At Joshua’s command, they would go out and come in, he and the sons of Israel, in order to conquer the land. (Num.27:20-21)
Beforehand, the LORD allowed Moses to go up the mountain of Abiram (Num.27:12-13), and later also to the top of Mt. Nebo (Deut.34:1-4), where the LORD would allow him to see the Land, though he would not be allowed to enter it.
The LORD also instructed Moses that the sons of Israel should drive out all the inhabitants of the land. For if they would not, those that remained would be as pricks and thorns, and trouble Israel where they lived. He added -
"And it shall come about that as I plan to do to THEM, so I will do to YOU." (Num.33:55-56)
We shall return to this point when we review the conquest of the land.
12. Moses’ Second Discourse
We will not say much here concerning Moses’ second discourse, which is the Book of Deuteronomy.
* Moses explains one more time the Law.
* At the LORD’s direction, Moses announces the Law as it applies after arrival in the land (Palestinian Covenant).
* Moses alerts the people that compliance with the Law brings blessings (Deut.28:3-14). But breaking of the Law brings curses (Deut.28:16-26; Lev.26).
* But to break just one of the 613 ordinances and regulations was to break all the Law.
In this way, Moses set before the people the choice between life and death. Moses urged them, "Choose life!"
Moses died at the age of 120 years and was buried in the valley of Moab. The Scriptures note that, at the time of writing, no prophet in Israel had risen before or since. We know that -
* The LORD knew Moses face to face.
* Evidence of Moses’ authority was in the signs and wonders the LORD sent him to perform in Egypt before Pharaoh.
* Moses was appointed by GOD to be an intercessor between the people and GOD. (Deut.34:10-12)
Yet Moses himself spoke of One who was to come -
"The LORD your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your countrymen, you shall listen to him. (Deut.18:15)
He would be like Moses - INTERCESSOR and PROPHET - but also He would be KING. THIS is the "seed of the woman," the miraculous deliverer, spoken of in Genesis 3.
This is a portion of a more extensive historical overview prepared by Mr. Charles Quigley. Select the more inclusive "sessions" for the TANAKH SURVEY (from the menu on the left) to view the overview in its entirety. This historical overview was originally created for oral presentations that cover Israel's history from its origin to a period leading to the 'Current Era' (CE). See note below on use of this presentation material.
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Time spent looking ... through a window on life and choice ... brings the opportunity to see in a new light. The offer for you to Step Up To Life is presented on many of the web pages at WindowView. Without further explanation we offer you the steps here ... knowing that depending on what you have seen or may yet explore in the window ... these steps will be the most important of your life ...