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Period Descriptions - Bible Covenants

Table 2: Biblical Time Line Periods

Covenants and Time Period Notes

Seven Responsibilities of the EDENIC Covenant

(Conditions the life of man in innocence)

- To replenish the earth with a new order-man (Genesis 1:28)
- To subdue the earth to human uses (Genesis 1:28)
- To have dominion over the animal creation (Genesis 1:28)
- To eat fruit and herbs (Genesis 1:29)
- To till and keep the garden (Genesis 2:15)
- To abstain from eating of the tree of knowledge of good and evil (Genesis 2:17)
- The penalty for sin -> death (Genesis 2:17)

Six Elements of the ADAMIC Covenant

(Conditions the life of the fallen human and gives promise of a Redeemer)

- Serpent is cursed (Genesis 3:14)
- First promise of a Redeemer (Genesis 3:15)
- State of woman changed (Genesis 3:16)
- The earth cursed for man's sake (Genesis 3:17)
- Life will be filled with inevitable sorrow (Genesis 3:17)
- Physical death is the result of sin (Genesis 3:19)

Four Elements of the NOAHIC Covenant

(Establishes human government)

- Relation of man to the earth under the Adamic Covenant is confirmed (Genesis 8:21)
- The earth is secured against another universal judgment of water (Genesis 8:21)
- Order of nature is confirmed (Genesis 8:22)
- Human government is established (Genesis 9: 1-6)

Seven Promises of the ABRAHAMIC Covenant

(Founds the nation of Israel and confirms, with special additions, the Adamic promise of redemption)

- Make of Abraham a great nation (Genesis 12:2)
- Bless thee (Genesis 12:2)
- Make thy name great (Genesis 12:2)
- Thou shalt be a blessing (Genesis 12:2)
- Bless them that bless thee (Genesis 12:3)
- Curse them that curse thee (Genesis 12:3)
- In thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed (Genesis 12:3)

The Land (Israel) as given by the Lord to Moses:

Genesis 12:7 Then the LORD appeared to Abram and said, "To your descendants I will give this land." And there he built an altar to the LORD, who had appeared to him.
Genesis 13:15 "for all the land which you see I give to you and your descendants forever.
Genesis 15:18 On the same day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying: "To your descendants I have given this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the River Euphrates (NKJV)

Three Elements of the MOSAIC Covenant

(Condemns all mankind)

- Commandments express the righteous will of God (Exodus 20:1-26)
- Judgments govern the social life of Israel (Exodus 21:1-24:11)
- Ordinances govern the religious life of Israel (Exodus 24:12-31:18)

Seven Elements of the PALESTINIC Covenant

(Secures the final restoration and conversion of Israel)

- Dispersion for disobedience (Deuteronomy 30:1)
- Future repentance of Israel while in the dispersion (Deuteronomy 30:2)
- Return of the Lord (Deuteronomy 30:3)
- Restoration of the land (Deuteronomy 30:5)
- National conversion (Deuteronomy 30:6)
- Judgment of Israel's oppressors (Deuteronomy 30:7)
- National propriety (Deuteronomy 30:9)

Three Promises of the DAVIDIC Covenant

(Establishes the perpetuity of the Davidic family and kingdom, over Israel and over the whole earth; to be fulfilled by Messiah)

- A house (king) forever (2 Samuel 7:16)
- Kingdom forever (2 Samuel 7:16)
- Throne forever (2 Samuel 7:16)

Seven Elements of the NEW COVENANT

(Rests upon the sacrifice of Messiah and secures the eternal blessedness, under the Abrahamic Covenant, of all who believe. It is absolutely unconditional and since no responsibility is by it committed to man, it is final and irreversible)

The New Covenant:

- is better than the Mosaic Covenant because it is efficacious (Hebrews 7:19)
- is established on better, unconditional promises (Hebrews 8:10, 12)
- is established such that obedience now springs from a willing heart and mind (Hebrews 8:10)
- secures the personal revelation of the Lord to every believer (Hebrews 8:11)
- completely obviates all sins (Hebrews 8:12)
- rests on an accomplished redemption (Hebrews 9:11, 12, 18-23)
- secures the perpetuity, future conversion, and blessing of Israel (Jeremiah 31:31-40)


Believers Raptured
(all others are Left Behind)

- Restrainer is removed from the earth (2 Thessalonians 2:7)

- World's believing community is removed (i.e., raptured, snatched) from the surface of the earth (John 14:1-3; 1 Corinthians 15:51, 52; 1 Thessalonians 4:16-18; Revelation 3:10)


Beginning of TRIBULATION

- The Antichrist makes a seven-year covenant with Israel (Daniel 9:26-27) ( see Creator's Window Chapter 15)

- Two witnesses begin their three and a half year evangelistic ministry (Revelation 11: 3-6) ( see Creator's Window Chapter 23)

First Half of Tribulation

- Israel lives in peace and rebuilds under the patronage of the Antichrist (Ezekiel 38:8)
- The world church (one world religion) dominates religion and the Antichrist (Revelation 17)
- Temple sacrifices are instituted (Revelation 11: 1-2)
First Seal - The Antichrist becomes a world leader for peace with the support of his confederacy (Daniel 9:7, 20, 24; Matthew 24: 4-5; Revelation 6: 1-2; 13:5, 7; 17:12-13)
Second Seal - War (Matthew 24:6-7a; Revelation 6:3-4)
Third Seal - Famine (Matthew 24:7b; Revelation 6:5-6)
Fourth Seal - Death (Matthew 24:7c-8; Revelation 6:7-8)
Fifth Seal - Martyrdom of converted multitudes (Matthew 24:9-10; Revelation 6:9-11; 7:9-14)
Sixth Seal - Cosmic disturbances and worldwide fear of divine wrath (Matthew 24:15-21; Revelation 6:12-17)
- 144,000 Jews are saved and sealed (Revelation 7:1-8)
- A large multitude of people are saved (Revelation 7:9-17)
Seventh Seal - Silence = Seven Trumpet judgments (Revelation 8: 1-2)

(for additional discussion of the events outlined here see Creator's Window Chapters 20, 22, and 23)


First half of Tribulation lasts 3.5 years

Middle of the Tribulation

- Satan cast down from heaven by Michael (Revelation 12: 7-12)
- The Antichrist breaks his seven-year covenant with Israel (Daniel 9:27)
- The 10 kings united under the Antichrist destroy the world church (Revelation 17: 16-18)
- The beast martyrs the two witnesses (2 Thessalonians 2:4; Revelation 11:7-12)

(for additional discussion of the events outlined here see Creator's Window Chapters 20, 22, and 23)


The ''Abomination of Desolation'' (Daniel 12:11)


Second half of Tribulation lasts 3.5 years

Second Half of Tribulation

- The Antichrist is revealed as ''the man of lawlessness'' (2 Thessalonians 2: 3, 8-9)
- The image of the Antichrist is set up for worldwide worship and promoted by the false prophet ( Daniel 9:27; Matthew 24: 11-12, 15; 2 Thessalonians 2:4, 11; Revelation 13:4, 11-15)
- the mark of the beast is used to promote worship of the antichrist (Revelation 13: 16-18)
First Trumpet - Hail and fire mixed with blood, and 1/3 of earth's vegetation destroyed (Revelation 8:7)
Second Trumpet - 1/3 of sea becomes blood, 1/3 of marine life killed, and 1/3 of ships destroyed (Revelation 8:8,9)
Third Trumpet - 1/3 of fresh water poisoned (Revelation 8:10,11)
Fourth Trumpet - 1/3 of sun, moon, and stars darkened (Revelation 8:12)
- An eagle proclaims three woes which are the last three trumpets
Fifth Trumpet - (First Woe) - Demon locusts attack and torment unbelievers for five months (Revelation 9:1-12)
Sixth Trumpet - (Second Woe) - 4 angels are loosed who kill 1/3 of mankind; 200 million man army assembled (Revelation 9:13-21)
Seventh Trumpet - (Third Woe) - The seven bowl judgments (Revelation 11:15-19)
First Bowl - Boils inflicted on those who had the mark of the beast or worshiped his image (Revelation 16:2)
Second Bowl - All seas turn turned into blood and every living creature in the sea dies (Revelation 16:3)
Third Bowl - Rivers and springs turn to blood (Revelation 16:4-7)
Fourth Bowl - Sun scorches men with oppressive heat (Revelation 16:8,9)
Fifth Bowl - The kingdom of the beast is plunged into utter darkness that causes continual pain (Revelation 16:10,11)
Sixth Bowl - Euphrates River dries up to facilitate the movement of the confederacy's army (Revelation 16:12)
Seventh Bowl - Earth is shaken by tremendous earthquakes, great noises, and huge hailstones, and the cities of the world will be destroyed (Revelation 16:17-21)

(for additional discussion of the events outlined here see Creator's Window Chapters 20, 22, and 23)

End of Tribulation

- The armies from the East and the North move toward Palestine (Daniel 11:44; Revelation 16:12)
- Jerusalem is ravaged (Zechariah 14:1-4)
- Commercial Babylon is destroyed (Revelation 16:19; 18:1-3, 21-24)
- Signs appear in the earth and sky that signal the beginning of the end (Isaiah 13:10; Joel 2:10, 30-31; 3:15; Matthew 24:29)
- Messiah (Yeshua, Jesus) returns to earth with the armies of heaven to destroy the godless army of the antichrist (Matthew 24:27-31; Revelation 19:11-16)
- Armies of the earth unite at Armageddon against Yeshua and the armies of heaven (Joel 3:9-11; Revelation 16:16; 19:17-19)
- The armies of the earth are destroyed by Yeshua (Revelation 19:19, 21)
- The Antichrist and the false prophet are thrown into the Lake of Fire (Revelation 19:20)


Beginning of Millennium

- Satan is bound and cast into the bottomless pit for 1,000 years (Revelation 20:1-3)
- The Tribulation saints are resurrected (Revelation 20:4-6)
- The Tanach (Old Testament) saints are resurrected (Isaiah 26:19; Daniel 12:1-3)
- Yeshua judges the Jews and Gentiles still living (Ezekiel 20:33-38; Matthew 25:1-30, 31-46)
- Yeshua begins His reign on earth (Psalm 72:8; Isaiah 9:6-7; Daniel 2:14-35, 44; 7:13-14; Zechariah 9:10; Revelation 20:4)

End of Millennium

- Satan is released from the bottomless pit for a short time (Revelation 20:7)
- Satan once again tries to deceive the nations (Revelation 20:8)
- The armies of the world are reunited against Jerusalem, surround the city, and are destroyed by fire from God (Revelation 20:9)
- Satan is cast into the Lake of Fire for eternity (Revelation 20:10)
- The evil angels are judged (1 Corinthians 6:3)
- The wicked who have died throughout history are resurrected (Daniel 12:2b; John 5:29b)
- The wicked from all generations are judged at the Great White Throne Judgment (Revelation 20: 11-14)
- The wicked are cast into the lake of Fire for eternity (Revelation 20:14-15; 21:6)

  Great White Throne Judgment

Judgment - those SAVED
go to New Heavens and New Earth

- Yeshua delivers the millennial kingdom to God the Father (1 Corinthians 15:24)
- The present heavens and earth are demolished (Revelation 21:1)
- New heavens and new earth are created (2 Peter 3:10; Revelation 21:1)
- A new Jerusalem descends to the new earth (Revelation 21:2, 10-27)
- Yeshua rules forever on the throne of David (Isaiah 9:6-7; Ezekiel 37:24-28; Daniel 7:13-14; Luke 1:32-33; Revelation 11:15)

Judgment - those NOT SAVED
go to
Lake of Fire

- The wicked are cast into the Lake of Fire for eternity (Revelation 20:14,15; 21:6)

Language Translation

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SOURCES, Citations, and Reference listing.
TimeLine References:
  • Various sources were used to develop this time line. Where possible dates are cross checked or events are placed in relative position. Many of the dates used above come from the following references:
  • Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, Th.M., Ph.D.1982. Footsteps of Messiah - A Study of the Sequence of Prophetic Events. (Fruchtenbaum)
  • Ayers, Ed. 1999. God's Last Offer - Negotiating for a Sustainable Future. (A)
  • Fruchtenbaum, Arnold G., Th.M., Ph.D.1982. Footsteps of Messiah - A Study of the Sequence of Prophetic Events. (Fruchtenbaum) (New edition 2003)
  • Graham, Billy. 1992. Storm Warning. Published by: W Publishing Group (formerly Word Publishing)
  • Grun, Bernard. 1991. The Timetables of History - A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. New Third Revised Edition. Based on Werner Stein's Kulturfahrplan. A Touchstone Book:New York. (G)
  • Ice, T., and R. Price. 1989. Ready to Rebuild — The Imminent Plant to Rebuild the Last Days Temple. (IP)
  • (Info)
  • H. Lindsey. 1973. There's A New World Coming. Bantam Books. (Lindsey)
  • Randall Price. 2001 Unholy War. (P)
  • Dr. G. Schroeder with Z. Levitt. Genesis One. Levitt Ministries (see note in graphic box at top of this table for details).
  • SciNews: Science News is a science news weekly generally obtained by subscription, also see:
  • Web (Internet): Occasionally we find what appear as reliable, but formally unpublished, sources on the Internet. As such these entries remain to be fully confirmed. In many cases this information is found to agree with the remainder of the timeline and the published sources used here.
  • Zondervan Corporation. 1985. The NIV Study Bible. Zondervan Bible Publishers:Grand Rapids.

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