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Timeline for 1600s to 1950s CE

1648 CE


Sixth Church Age

Philadelphia ( 1648 - 1900 ) Missionary Movement

[As opposed to the dates offered by A. Fruchtenbaum above, Lindsey sets this age from 1750 to 1925]

Commendation given concerning this church and the related church age: ''...are commended for making use of the open door. ...the Philadelphians were faithful in making use of the open door. During the period of 1700 - 1900 there was virtually no place where a missionary could not go. Every place was open to them. today, more and more countries are closing their doors to missionaries. But during those two centuries there were virtually no limitations.''

Condemnation given: None!

(Quotations from Fruchtenbaum)


Concerning the long range implications of this church age:
''This was the great missionary era of the Church. Believers awakened to the millions who had never heard the name of Jesus, and many missionary movements began during this period. The China Inland Mission, the Student Volunteer Movement, and the Salvation Army were typical of the sacrificial enterprises reaching a vast cross-section of unevangelized peoples.

During this period the Church sensed its need for spiritual revival when God sent men like Wesley, Whitefield, Edwards, Finney, Spurgeon, and Moody (to name a few) across England and America. Revivals swept across the English-speaking countries and out of this great spiritual awakening rose many universities and churches dedicated to Messiah.

Unfortunately, missionary zeal began to wane after World War I, and though some evangelistic movements continued to flourish, many of the schools and churches that arose during this era have long since abandoned the Christian heritage.
The Philadelphia type of church is still present in the world and it will be here until the Rapture, but it is not the dominant force in the professing Christian church today.'' (Quotation from Lindsey)

1652 CE Imperial German Academy of Naturalists founded (G)

1654 CE Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat state theory of probability (G)

1658 CE Robert Hooke, naturalist and philosopher, invents balance spring for watches (G)

1661 CE Robert Boyle: ''The Skeptical Chymist,'' with definition of chemical elements (G)

1663 CE John Newton discovers binomial theorem (G)

1665 CE ''Philosophical Transactions'' first scientific journal in England

Isaac Newton experiments on gravitation; invents differential calculus (G)


Are Two Church Ages Combined?25
Church Ages - Are the Last Two Combined?

1648 CE Sabbatai Zevi (1626 - 1676), self-proclaimed Messiah, founds a Jewish sect (G)

1655 CE Oliver Cromwell readmits Jews into England (G)

1668 CE Joseph Glanvill: ''Plus ultra, or Progress of Knowledge since Aristotle'' (G)

1673 CE French explorers Marquette and Joliet reach headwaters of Mississippi River (G)

1675 CE German astronomer Olaus Romer discovers the finite velocity of light (G)

1681 CE Academy of Sciences, Moscow, founded (G)

1697 CE Daniel Defoe: ''An Essay Upon Projects,'' recommending income tax (G)



1670 CE Spinoza: ''Tractus theoloico-politicus'' (G)

1671 CE First Bible edition in Arabic (G)

1684 CE 93 Jewish families expelled from Bordeaux (G)

1693 CE Secret society, Knights of the Apocalypse, founded in Italy to defend the church against the antichrist (G)

1703 CE Isaac Newton elected President of the Royal Society (G)

Science Turns Towords the Technical29
Science Turns Towards the Technical

1710 CE Jakob Christoph Le Blon invents three-color printing (G)

1714 CE D. G. Fahrenheit, constructs mercury thermometer with temperature scale (G)


1716 CE Christian religious teaching prohibited in China (G)

1719 CE Jesuits expelled from Russia (G)

1728 CE James Bradley discovers aberration of light of fixed stars (G)

1729 CE Stephen Gray discovers that some bodies are conductors and some nonconductors of electricity (G)

Relatively Speaking, Religion goes quietly on.30
Relatively Speaking, Religion goes quietly on
and Science is in full swing for now.

1731 CE John Hadley invents quadrant for use at sea (G)

1735 CE Linnaeus: ''Systema naturae''

Benoit de Maillet (1656 - 1738): ''Telliamed,'' evolutionary hypothesis (G)

1736 CE manufacture of glass begins in Venice (G)

1738 CE Daniel Bernoulli: ''Hydrodynamica,'' pressure and velocity of fluids (G)



1734 CE The Koran translated into English by George Sale (G)

John Wesley writes his ''Journals'' (to 1790) (G)

1740 CE Berlin Academy of Sciences founded (G)

1742 CE Swiss astronomer Anders Celsius invents centigrade thermometer (G)

1747 CE Benjamin Franklin: ''Plain Truth'' (G)

1748 CE David Hume: ''Philosophical Essays Concerning Human Understanding'' (G)



1743 CE Pogoms in Russia (persecution of Jews) (G)

1747 CE Gilbert West: ''Observations on the Resurrection''(G)

1750 CE Johann Tobias Mayer: ''Map of the Moon'' (G)

1752 CE Benjamin Franklin invents the lightning conductor (G)

1755 CE Immanuel Kant's doctoral thesis: ''The True Measure of Forces'' (G)


1750 CE Baal Shem (1699 - 1760) founds Jewish sect of Chassidim in Carpathian mountain region (G)

1753 CE England - Act of Parliament permits naturalization of Jews (G)

1764 CE James Watt invents condenser, first step toward steam engine (G)

1766 CE Henry Cavendish discovers hydrogen is less dense than air (G)

1768 CE New criminal code, on humanist principles, introduced in Austria (G)



1767 CE Jesuits expelled from Spain, Parma, and the Two Sicilies (G)

1771 CE Encyclopedia Britannica, first edition (G)

Luigi Galvani discovers electrical nature of nervous impulse

1772 CE Daniel Rutherford and Joseph Priestley independently discover nitrogen (G)

1775 CE J.C. Fabricius: ''Systema entomologiae,'' classification of insects

James Watt perfects his invention of the steam engine (G)

1777 CE C.A. Coulomb invents torsion balance

Lavoisier proves air consists mainly of oxygen and nitrogen (G)


Experience WindowView
(the main goals of this site!)

1780 CE American Academy of Sciences founded at Boston (G)

1781 CE Kant: ''Critique of Pure Reason,'' fundamental work of modern philosophy (G)

1789 CE Antonie Jussieu: ''Genera plantarum.'' modern classification of plants (G)


1790 CE First patent law in U.S.

Lavoisier: ''Table of Thirty-One Chemical Elements.'' (G)

1794 CE Erasmus Darwin: ''Zoonomia, or the Laws of Organic Life.'' (G)

First telegraph, Paris - Lille (G)

1796 CE G.L.C. Cuvier founds the science of comparative zoology.


1790 CE Jews in France granted civil liberties (G)

1800 CE A. Volta produces electricity from cell: first battery of zinc and copper plates (G)

1802 CE John Dalton introduces atomic theory into chemistry

Gottfried Treviranus coins term ''biology'' (G)

1803 CE Robert Fulton propels a boat by steam power (G)

1809 CE Lamarck: ''Systeme des animaux sans vertebres.'' (G)


1804 CE British and Foreign Bible Society founded in London (G)

1811 CE Amadeo Avogadro: hypothesis of the molecular composition of gases.

1815 CE Lamer: ''Histoire naturelle Des animaux.'' (G)


1812 CE Jews in Prussia emancipated (Hardenberg reforms) (G)

1821 CE Faraday discovers fundamentals of electromagnetic rotation. (G)

1823 CE British medical journal ''The Lancet'' first issued (G)1827 CE J.J. Audubon: ''Birds of North America.'' (G) George S. Ohm formulates Ohm's Law, defining electrical current potential and resistance. (G)

1829 CE James Smithson bequeaths 100,000 British pounds to found Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. (G)


1827 CE John Darby founds the Plymouth Brethren (G)

1830 CE Robert Brown discovers the cell nucleus in plants. (G)

Charles Lyell divides the geological system into three groups which he names eocene, miocene, and pliocene. (G)1831 CE Charles Darwin sails as naturalist on ''H.M.S. Beagle'' to South America and New Zealand. (G)Faraday carries out experiments demonstrating discovery of electromagnetic induction. (G)1834 CE Cyrus Hall McCormick patents reaping machine. (G)1836 CE Asa Gray: ''Elements of Botany'' first botanical textbook. (G)

K.F. Schimper begins researches into Pleistocene epoch. (G)



1830 CE The religious society of Mormons or Latterday Saints, founded by Joseph Smith and his friends at Fayette, NY. (G)

[See article on scientific problems with Book of Mormon text]

1840 CE Liebig discovers the fundamentals of artificial fertilizer. (G)

1842 CE Crawford Long uses ether to produce surgical anesthesia. (G)1843 CE J.P. Joule determines the amount of work required to produce a unit of heat (mechanical equivalent of heat). (G)1844 CE S.F.B. Morse's telegraph used for the first time between Baltimore and Washington. (G)

1848 CE ''Communist Manifesto'' issued by Marx and Engels. (G)



1846 CE Brigham Young leads Mormons from Nauvoo City, IL., to Great Salt Lake, UT. (G) [See article on scientific problems with Book of Mormon text]

1850 CE Rudolf Clausius formulates second law of thermodynamic,s and kinetic theory of gases. (G)

1852 CE Herbert Spencer: ''The Development Hypothesis'' (first use of word ''evolution''). (G)1853 CE Alexander Wood uses hypodermic syringe for subcutaneous injections. (G)1854 CE Heirich Goebel invents first form of electric light bulb. (G)1856 CE N. Pringsheim observes sperm entering ovum in plants. (G)1857 CE Pasteur proves fermentation is caused by living organisms. (G)

1858 CE T.H. Huxley: ''The Theory of the Vertebrate Skulls'' (G)


A Dawning of Global Change31
A Dawning of Global Change


1858 CE The Blessed Virgin Mary reputed to have appeared to Bernadette Soubirous (1844-1879) at Lourdes, France (G)

Lionel de Rothschild becomes first Jewish member of British Parliament (G)

But as is now being recognized, the evolutionary tree and underlying principles used to justify Darwinian evolution are not consistent with current evidence. See our section on Science in relation to the following topics: Darwin - Evolution
Intelligent Design
Irreducibly Complex
Cambrian Explosion

Charles Darwin publishes ''Origin of Species by Natural Selection''
1859 CE

1859 CE Karl Marx: ''Critique of Political Economy'' (G)

J.S. Mill: ''Essay on Liberty'' (G)

Anthropological Society, Paris, founded (G)

First oil well drilled at Titusville, PA (G)


Huxley (1825-1895) exclaimed that fossil record is proof of Darwin's theory.

Huxley: ''Considerations on Representative Government'' (G)

Thomas Henry Huxley

1860 CE

1860 CE Lenoir constructs first practical internal-combustion engine (G)

1861 CE Archaeopteryx: skeleton of link between reptile and bird discovered at Solnhofen, Germany,; now at the British Museum (G)

T.S. Mort builds first machine-chilled cold storage unit (G)

1862 CE Lion Foucault successfully measures the speed of light (G)

R.J. Gatling constructs 10-barrel gun (G)

Julius Sachs demonstrates that starch is produced by photosynthesis (G)

1863 CE Huxley: ''Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature'' (G)

J.S. Mill: ''Utilitarianism'' (G)

Natl. Academy of Sciences founded, Washington, DC (G)

1864 CE Pasteur invents pasteurization (G)

1865 CE Atlantic cable completed (G)

MIT founded (G)

Gregor Mendel enunciates his Law of Heredity (G)

1866 CE Alfred Nobel invents dynamite (G)

1868 CE Charles Darwin: ''The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication'' (G)

Ernst Haekel: ''Natural History of Creation'' (G)

Skeleton of Cro-Magnon man from Upper Paleolithic age (first Homo sapiens in Europe, successor of Neanderthal man) found in France


1860 CE Russian Orthodox Church establishes monastery in Jerusalem (G)

1864 CE Syllabus Errorum issued by Pope Pius IX: condemns Liberalism, Socialism, and Rationalism (G)

1866 CE Jews become a majority in Jerusalem

1869 CE Meeting of First Vatican Council-Cardinal Manning advocates a definition of papal infallibility (G)


1871 CE Charles Darwin: ''The Descent of Man'' (G)

1872 CE Wm. Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, invents a machine by which ships can take accurate soundings while at sea (G)

J.C. Maxwell: ''Electricity and Magnetism'' (G)

Gunsmith firm of E. Remington and Sons begins to produce typewriters

1876 CE A.G. Bell invents telephone

Robert Koch discovers anthrax bacillus

1877 CE Edison invents phonograph

1879 CE Fahlberg and Remser discover saccharin

London's first telephone exchange established (G)


1870 CE First Vatican Council promulgates the dogma of papal infallibility (G)

1871 CE Jehovah's Witnesses founded (G)

1875 CE Mary Baker Eddy: ''Science and Health'' (G)

1878 CE German historian Heinrich Treitschke begins racial anti-Semite movement (G)

1879 CE Mary Baker Eddy becomes pastor of Church of Christ Scientist, Boston (G)

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1880 CE T.A. Edison and J.W. Swan independently devise first practical electric lights

1885 CE Karl Benz builds single-cylinder engine for motor car

Geo. Eastman manufactures coated photographic paper (G)

1886 CE E. von Bergmann uses steam to sterilize surgical instruments (G)

1888 CE Eastman perfects ''Kodak'' box camera (G)


1880s CE 'Lovers of Zion' movement initiated in Russia early in this decade. The group's goal was to establish a homeland in Palestine... because it is there that the Jews were promised a Land and given the Land by God through Abraham. See Abrahamic Covenant

1881 CE Persecution of Jews in Russia (G)

1884 CE Divorce reestablished in France

1885 CE Mormons split into polygamous and monogamous sections (G) [See article on scientific problems with Book of Mormon text]

1889 CE Huxley: ''Agnosticism'' (G)

1891 CE Beginning of wireless telegraphy

1893 CE Henry Ford builds his first car1895 CE W. Rontgen discovers x-rays (G)C. von Linde constructs a machine for the liquefaction of air (G)1896 CE Annual Nobel Prizes established for physics, physiology and medicine, chemistry, literature, and peace (G)A.H. Becquerel discovers radioactivity1897 CE J.J. Thomson discovers electron (G)1899 CE J. Ward: ''Naturalism and Agnosticism''

First magnetic recording of sound (G)


1897 CE First Zionist Congress

1900 CE


Seventh Church Age

Laodicea (1900 to present day)

Commendation given concerning this church and the related church age:

NONE given!

''All six of the previous churches had at least one word of commendation, but this church has none.''

Condemnation given: ''...they are characterized by lukewarmness. ... characterized by richness in worldly goods, but are self-deceived for they are spiritually poor, blind and naked. This is a very good descripton of the Apostate church. ... Apostasy can be defined as the departure from the truth that one professed to have. ... is a departure from the truth they professed to have because of an affiliation with a particular church.''

(Quotations from Fruchtenbaum)


Concerning the long range implications of this church age:
''Near the turn of this century the scholars at many theological seminaries, particularly in Europe, began to introduce what they called ''higher criticism'' of the Scriptures. They were eager to examine the historicity and the accuracy of the Biblical documents by using research methods developed in secular education.

Many of the leading critics possessed, at best, a lukewarm relationship with Messiah, and this was reflected in their hazy views of Scripture. The more open skeptics began to deny outright the supernatural aspects of the Biblical faith—all in the name of scholarship—and before long they has ''demythologized'' Jesus into a mere man.

This ... infection spread like wildfire through the seminaries in Europe and the US, and by the 1920s it was echoing from the pulpits of American churches. The Western world was caught up in scientific and philosophical rationalism and the church got sucked into the vortex because so many of its leaders had never experienced a deep faith in Jesus.

The sad truth is that thousands of churches around the world today call themselves Christian but Messiah is nowhere to be found in them. Tragically, most of the unbelieving world look at them—and want no part of their sham. And I don't either!
Although this Laodicean lukewarmness is the predominant characteristic of he church age today, there are signs that the Philadelphian evangelistic fervor is reviving in these closing days of human history. That's consistent with God's pattern of always showering down grace before hurling blasts of judgment.

The unbelievers of this era will find themselves enmeshed in the judgments of God during the Great Tribulation which is soon coming upon the earth. But everyone within this church age who is a true believer in Jesus will be taken out of the world before the judgment, and will be rewarded for his faith by spending eternity with Jesus.'' (Quotation from Lindsey)

From the early 1900s to the present, that is, the 20th Century discoveries all revisit the exact nature of our origins with new scientific evidence from many disciplines. From theory to material evidence... the data undercut Darwin's naturalistic philosophy, but reversing the trend started by Darwin's thinking only begins with those thinking about an intelligent designer- at the end of the century in the 1990s.


20th Century

Following a ''century of steam,'' the ''century of electricity'' begins (G)

Technical science will begin to gather evidence that in effect supports the biblical perspective from this point on. Science paradigms will be subject to change later in this century and into the new millennium.

1900 CE Freud: ''The Interpretation of Dreams'' (G)

Max Planck formulates quantum theory

First trial flight of Zeppelin

1901 CE W.H. Nernst postulates the ''third law of thermodynamics'' (G)

1903 CE Wright brothers successfully fly a powered airplane

R.A. Zsigmondy invents the ultramicroscope (G)

1904 CE Freud: ''The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (G)

Work begins on Panama Canal

First telegraphic transmission of photographs, Germany


1900 CE Shintoism reinstated in Japan against Buddist influence (G)

1903 CE Anti-Jewish pogroms in Russia (G)

1904 CE Church and State separated in France (G)

Max Weber: ''The Protestant Ethic and the Birth of Capitalism'' (G)

Formulates Special Theory of Relativity; establishes law of mass-energy equivalence; creates Brownian theory of motion; and formulates the photon theory of light (G)

Albert Einstein

1905 CE

1906 CE Harden discovers cases of catalysis among enzymes (G)

1907 CE Ross Harrison develops tissue culture techniques

1908 CE H. Kamerlingh Onnes liquefies helium

1909 CE Lenin: ''Materialism and Empiric Criticism''

Peary reaches North Pole (G)

First commercial manufacture of Bakelite marks beginning of Plastic Age (G)


1907 CE Papal encyclical ''Pascendi gregis'' condemns modernism (G)

1909 CE Jewish world population: Russia, 5.2 million; Austria-Hungary, 2 million; US, 1.7 million; Germany 600 thousand; Turkey, 400 thousand; France, 100 thousand (G)

Charles D. Walcott, Director of Smithsonian Institution, makes vast fossil find in Burgess Shale in British Columbia, Canada. This find illustrates immense explosion of life forms at about 560 MYA. (See Cambrian explosion) This evidence is not publicized until mid 1980s!
Evidence that severely constricts or negates Darwin's Theory.

Burgess Shale
1909 CE

1910 CE Prince Albert I of Monaco founds Institute for Oceanography (G)

1911 CE R. Amundsen reaches the South Pole (G)

Rutherford formulates his theory of atomic structure (G)

1913 CE Niels Bohr formulates his theory of atomic structure (G)

Composition of chlorophyll discovered by Richard Willstatter (G)

H.N. Russell formulates theory of stellar evolution


1917 CE - British capture Jerusalem from Turks and from 1921 to 1947 Jerusalem is ruled under British Mandate.

1914 CE

World War I

1915 CE - General Theory of Relativity


Experience WindowView
(the main goals of this site!)

1915 CE Ford develops a farm tractor (G)

First transcontinental telephone call between A.G. Bell (New York) and Dr. Watson (San Francisco) (G)

1916 CE Sir Arthur Eddington investigates the physical properties of stars (G)

1917 CE C.G. Jung: ''Psychology of the Unconscious'' (G)

Freud: ''introduction to Psychoanalysis'' (G)

100-inch reflecting telescope installed at Mt. Wilson, CA (G)

1918 CE Controversy over new psychology of Freud and Jung (G)

H. Shapley discovers the true dimensions of the Milky Way (G)

1919 CE Thomas Morgan: ''The Physical Basis of Heredity'' (G)

Rutherford demonstrates the atom is not final building block of the universe (G)


1916 CE Martin Buber: ''The Spirit of Judaism'' (G)

1917 CE Balfour Declaration - collapse of Ottoman rule opened way for Zionists to work toward establishing a homeland. By this declaration Britian endorsed establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

1918 CE Leonard Wooley begins Babylonian excavations (G)

1919 CE Church and State separated in Germany (G)


1920 CE Samuel Alexander: ''Space, Time, and Deity,'' English metaphysical realism (G)

Arthur Stanley Eddington: ''Space, Time, and Gravitation'' (G)

Harvey Cushing develops new techniques in brain surgery (G)

1921 CE Chromosome theory of heredity postulated by Thomas Hunt Morgan (G)

Edgar Dacque initiates phylogenetically oriented paleontology (G)

Nobel Prize to Einstein for discovery of photoelectric effect (G)

1923 CE Edwin P. Hubble discovers a distance-indicating cepheid variable star in the Andromeda nebula (G)

1924 CE R.C. Andrews discovers skulls and skeletons of Mesozoic dinosaurs in the Gobi Desert (G)

Patent application for ionoscope (TV) filed by V.K. Zworikin (G)


1920s CE Jewish-Arab violence breaks out in Palestine - bombings and murders.

1922 CE British Mandate: On the way to establishing the 'Land' (future Israel) - the British obtained a mandate to administer Palestine and Transjordan (now Jordan) from the League of Nations.

1924 CE Gandhi fasts for 21 days in protest against the political and religious feuds of the Hindus and Moslems in India (G)

1925 CE Heisenberg, Bohr, and Jordan develop quantum mechanics for atoms (G)

John T. Scopes, schoolteacher, goes on trial for violating Tennessee law that prohibits teaching of the theory of evolution; defended by C. Darrow (prosecutor, Wm. J. Bryan); Scopes convicted, then acquitted on technicality (G)

1926 CE Robert H. Goddard fires the first liquid fuel rocket (G)

Werner Heisenberg further develops the quantum theory (G)

Thomas H. Morgan: ''The Theory of the Gene'' (G)

1927 CE T.H. Morgan: ''Experimental Embryology'' (G)

1928 CE J.L. Baird demonstrates color TV (G)

Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin (G)

Geiger and Muller construct the ''Geiger counter'' (G)

1929 CE Einstein: ''Unified Field Theory'' (G)

Hubble measures red shifts in spectra of extragalactic nebulae (G)


1925 CE Hebrew University founded in Jerusalem (G)

1926 CE R.H. Tawney: ''Religion and the Rise of Capitalism'' (G)

1928 CE New edition of ''Encyclopedia Judaica'' released (G)

1930 CE Alfred Rosenberg: ''The Myth of the 20th Century,'' Nazi philosophy (G)

Eddington attempts to unify general relativity and the quantum theory (G)

E.O. Lawrence pioneers development of cyclotron (G)

Planet Pluto discovered (G)

1933 CE C.G. Jung: ''Modern Man in Search of a Soul'' and ''Psychology and Religion'' (G)

Nobel Prize: T.H. Morgan for the heredity transmission functions of chromosomes (G)

The theory that Neanderthal Man is in the line of descent of Homo Sapiens is rejected following the discovery of the Steiheim skull (G)

1934 CE Enrico Fermi suggests that neutrons and protons are the same fundamental particles in two different quantum states (G)

1936 CE Dr. Alexis Carrel develops artificial heart (G)

1937 CE Insulin used to control diabetes

1939 CE Joliot - Curie demonstrates possibility of splitting the atom (G)

Paul Muller synthesizes DDT

Nobel Prize: E.O. Lawrence for development of cyclotron (G)


1930s CE Nazi atrocities sweep and disrupt Europe. Many Jews move to Palestine - many do so even in the face of restrictions impossed by British.

1930 CE Einstein: ''About Zionism'' (G)

1931 CE Jehovah's Witnesses formed from International Bible Students Association (G)

1933 CE E.W. Barnes: ''Scientific Theory and Religion'' (G)

Cardinal von Faulhaber (Munich): ''Judaism - Christendom - Germanism,'' anti-Nazi treatise (G)

1934 CE William Temple: ''Nature, Man and God'' (G)

1937 CE Martin Niemoller, Protestant parson of Berlin-Dahlem, interned in a concentration camp by Hitler (to 1945) (G)

1936 to 1939 CE Arab revolt against British rule and influx of Jewish immigrants. Britian responds militarily - thousands of Arabs killed. Later both Jews and Arabs resent British presence. Futher resistance to British idea of partitioning the Palestine into Jewish and Arab areas.

1939 CE

World War II

1940 CE First electron microscope demonstrated by RCA (G)

C.G. Jung: ''The Interpretation of Personality'' (G)

1941 CE ''Manhattan Project'' of intensive atomic research begins (G)

1942 CE Fermi splits the atom (G)

First electronic brain or automatic computer developed in US (G)

Magnetic recording tape invented (G)

Bell Aircraft tests first US jetplane (G)

1943 CE Waksman and Schatz discover streptomycin (G)

1944 CE Quinine synthesized

1945 CE First atomic bomb detonated in US (G)

1946 CE Xerography process invented by Chester Carlson (G)

1948 CE Arthur Keith: ''A New Theory of Human Evolution'' (G)

Long playing record invented (G)

US tests rocket that reaches range of 78 miles (G)

Alfred C. Kinsey: ''Sexual Behavior in the Human Male'' (G) [findings by Kinsey contested in 1990s and appear to misrepresent fact, yet still commonly quoted or accepted]

1949 CE USSR tests its first atomic bomb (G)


1942 CE C.S. Lewis: ''The Screwtape Letters'' (G)

1943 CE The US Supreme Court rules children need not salute flag in schools if it is against their religion, in case brought by Jehovah's Witnesses (reverses 1940 decision) (G)

1946 CE Armed clashes in Palestine result in deaths of 212 Arabs, Jews, and British soldiers.

1946 CE Jewish underground bomb King David Hotel (where British administrators worked) in Jerusalem, killing 91.

With the horror of the Holocaust revealed, sympathy and surpport for a Jewish state on rise - Jewish immigrants press to move to Palestine.

1947 CE The Dead Sea Scrolls, dating from approximately 22 BCE to 100 CE, are discovered in Wadi Qumran (G)

1948 CE W.R. Inge: ''Mysticism in Religion'' (G)

World Council of Churches organized in Amsterdam (G)

Return of Israel to the Land26
Return of Israel to the Land

Nation of Israel established

Dead Sea Scrolls discovered

1947 -1948 CE

November 1947 - UN General Assembly adopts plan to divide Palestine into a Jewish and Paletinian states. Jewish Agency votes for and Arabs vote against.

May 1948 - British drop mandate - Israel declared a state. Arab armies immediately attack. Fighting for 15 months, 12,000 killed, cease-fire declared in April 1949. Conflict results in greater territory for Israel. Some 750 thousand Palestinians flee to neighbor states.

1950 CE Einstein: ''General Field Theory'' (attempt to expand Theory of Relativity) (G)

1951 CE Electric power produced from atomic energy at Acron, Idaho (G) 1952 CE US detonates hydrogen bomb (G)1953 CE B.F. Skinner: ''Science and Human Behavior'' (G)Mazel discovers Cave Cougnac, near Gourdon containing prehistoric paintings (G)USSR explodes hydrogen bomb (G)W. Le Gross Clark proves the Piltdown Man to have been a hoax (G)

1954 CE Known chemical elements at the time of birth of Jesus: 9; around 1500: 12; around 1900: 84; in 1954: 100. (G)


1950 CE Pope Pius XII proclaims the dogma of the bodily assumption of the Virgin Mary (G)

25 Protestant and four Eastern Orthodox Church groups organize National Council of the Churches of Christ in US; 32 million members (G)

1952 CE - Copper Scroll found. Its Hebrew text describes hiding places for Temple implements outside Jerusalem—reliability of this information remains in question. (IP)

1952 CE Norman Vincent Peale: ''The Power of Positive Thinking'' (G)

The ''Revised Standard Version'' of the Bible, prepared by 32 scholars over 15 years, published for Protestants (G)

1954 CE Billy Graham holds evangelistic meetings in New York, London, and Berlin

World Council of Churches convened at Evanston, IL (G)

1955 CE Edmund Wilson: ''The Dead Sea Scrolls'' (G)

1953 CE - Experimental (laboratory) evidence suggesting molecules required for life can arise from 'primordial conditions.'

Chemical Evolution Experiment Fails27
Chemical Evolution
Experiment Fails to Explain Origins

Miller and Urey

Interpretations of results are misleading. See WindowView's article on Icons or see booklist link for Icons of Evolution by Jonathan Wells for a reasonable discussion of why this is not sound evidence in support of evolution.

1956 CE Neutrino, an atomic particle with no electric charge produced at Los Alamos Lab. (G)

Bell Telephone Company begins to develop ''visual telephone'' (G)

Transatlantic cable telephone service inaugurated (G)

1957 CE USSR launches Sputnik I and II, first earth satellites (G)

Fred Hoyle: ''Man and Materialism'' (G)

1958 CE US artificial earth satellite Explorer I launched from Cape Canaveral (G)

US establishes NASA to administer scientific exploration of space (G)

1959 CE USSR launches rocket with two monkeys aboard (G)

First Intl. Congress of Oceanography held in New York (G)

Nobel Prize to S. Ochoa and A. Kornberg for their synthesis of RNA and DNA


1955 to 1965 - Jerusalem divided. Jordanians rule over Old City.

1956 CE Suez Crisis

1957 CE Kathleen Kenyon: ''Digging up Jericho'' (G)

1958 CE Supreme Religious Center for World Jewry dedicated in Jerusalem (G)

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WindowView TimeLine
 References:  - click panel tab below to see more ...
SOURCES, Citations, and Reference listing.
TimeLine References:
  • Various sources were used to develop this time line. Where possible dates are cross checked or events are placed in relative position. Many of the dates used above come from the following references:
  • Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, Th.M., Ph.D.1982. Footsteps of Messiah - A Study of the Sequence of Prophetic Events. (Fruchtenbaum)
  • Ayers, Ed. 1999. God's Last Offer - Negotiating for a Sustainable Future. (A)
  • Fruchtenbaum, Arnold G., Th.M., Ph.D.1982. Footsteps of Messiah - A Study of the Sequence of Prophetic Events. (Fruchtenbaum) (New edition 2003)
  • Graham, Billy. 1992. Storm Warning. Published by: W Publishing Group (formerly Word Publishing)
  • Grun, Bernard. 1991. The Timetables of History - A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. New Third Revised Edition. Based on Werner Stein's Kulturfahrplan. A Touchstone Book:New York. (G)
  • Ice, T., and R. Price. 1989. Ready to Rebuild — The Imminent Plant to Rebuild the Last Days Temple. (IP)
  • (Info)
  • H. Lindsey. 1973. There's A New World Coming. Bantam Books. (Lindsey)
  • Randall Price. 2001 Unholy War. (P)
  • Dr. G. Schroeder with Z. Levitt. Genesis One. Levitt Ministries (see note in graphic box at top of this table for details).
  • SciNews: Science News is a science news weekly generally obtained by subscription, also see:
  • Web (Internet): Occasionally we find what appear as reliable, but formally unpublished, sources on the Internet. As such these entries remain to be fully confirmed. In many cases this information is found to agree with the remainder of the timeline and the published sources used here.
  • Zondervan Corporation. 1985. The NIV Study Bible. Zondervan Bible Publishers:Grand Rapids.

For a general listing of books, visit the WindowView Book Page for: Science and Scripture .
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