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Timeline for 100 to 1600 CE

100 CE


Second Church Age

Smyrna (100 - 313 )
Roman Persecution

Commendation given concerning this church and the related church age: ''...commended for having patience in sufferings.'' and ''commended for enduring the blasphemy of those who claim to be Jews, but they are not and are of the synagogue of Satan.'' Thus, believers in Messiah were persecuted by those who claimed to be God's people but were not.

Condemnation given: This church and the book of Revelation cites no condemnation with regard to the associated church age.

(Quotations from Fruchtenbaum)


Concerning the long range implications of this church age:

''The suffering of the church at Smyrna was prophetic of the great era of persecution under the ten Caesars... The motives of the church were purified during this long and difficult period. Millions of Christians met cruel martyrs' deaths rather than renounce Messiah or swear allegiance to Caesar as Lord.

When I visited the ruins of the great coliseum in Rome, I found that the foundations are still stained with the blood of martyrs.
This was a period of tremendous witness and heroic faith. Even the wicked Roman Empire was finally shaken by the testimony of these Christians.'' (Quotation from Lindsey)

  arrow Pre-Constantine

Roman occupation of Jerusalem lead Emerperor Hadrian to rename the city to Aelia Capitolina. Jewish residents were prohibited from living and directly around the occupied city. (Source: Web)

Oldest Mayan monuments (c. 164 CE) (G)

Pope Victor I (189-199 CE) (G)

Origen (c. 185 to 254 CE) (G)

Pappus of Alexandria describes five machines in use: cogwheel, lever, pulley, screw, wedge (c. 285) (G)


313 CE Constantine gives Christianity legal status and makes it official religion of Roman Empire (replacing paganism). (IP)


313 CE


Third Church Age

Pergamum (313 - 600 )
Age of Constantine

Commendation given concerning this church and the related church age: ''...commended for not denying the faith, singling out one of their faithful members, Antipas, who suffered martyrdom for his witness.''

Condemnation given: ''...condemned for two things. First, ... for allowing some to hold the teachings 0f Balaam.'' [see Numbers 22-24] ''... Because civil and religious life were so intertwined, for Christians to accept social engagements probably meant some involvement with paganism. Apparently many believers compromised anyway.

In the age of Constantine the church became married to the state which eventually resulted in spiritual fornication and idolatry. Now that the church was made a state religion, people all over the Roman Empire were baptized into the church without any real regard to personal faith. ... As a result a massive amount of pagans entered the church bringing many of their pagan practices with them.''
Secondly, ... condemned for permitting the teachings of the Nicolatians.''

(Quotationss from Fruchtenbaum)


Concerning the long range implications of this church age:

''During the historical era that the church of Pergamos symbolized, the church merged with the state. Emperor Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the empire and massive persecution ceased. But this apparent blessing to the church became a curse.

The church compromised its position more and more in order to gain favor and power. A church hierarchy began to develop, with the Bishop of Rome claiming increasing prominence because of his proximity to the ruler of the empire. He sought to strengthen his claim with the declaration of apostolic succession—alleging that this office in Rome was linked directly to Peter and that the Big Fisherman was the foundation of the church.

As the church at Pergamos therefore compromised with the world's paganism and immortality, its symbolic counterpart in the fourth and fifth centuries committed spiritual adultery in an impure alliance with the Roman Empire.'' (Quotation from Lindsey)

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325 CE First Ecumenical Council called by Constantine the Great. The Council passed 20 canons including the Nicene Creed, Canon of Holy Scripture (Holy Bible), and established the celebration of Pascha (Easter). (Source: Web)

363 CE Flavius Claudius Julianus makes way for rebuilding the Temple; this effort prevented by earthquake. (IP)

381 CE Second Ecumenical Council called by Emperor Theodosius I at Constantinople. Briefly, the Council added 5 canons setting forth doctrines on the Holy Spirit, the Church, the Sacraments, resurrection of the dead and life of the age to come. (Source: Web)

Aryabhata, Hindu astronomer and mathematician and writer on posers and roots of numbers (b. 476) (G)

507 CE - Mayan altar with head of death god (Copan, Honduras) (G)


411 CE St. Augustine: ''The City of God'' written after the sack of Rome by Alaric. (G)

431 CE Third Ecumenical Council called by Emperor Theodosius. The Council condemned the doctrines of Nestorios, Archbishop of Constantinople, who taught that there were two separate persons in the Incarnate Messiah, one Divine, the other human. (Source: Web)

443 CE Empress Eudocia allows Jews to pray on Temple Mount. (IP)


451 CE Fourth Ecumenical Council called by Emperor Marcian and his wife Poulcheria at Chalcedon, on the Asian side of Constantinople. The ''dogmatic decisions'' made by this Council were expressed by a statement of faith since called the Chalcedonian Definition. (Source: Web)

451 CE Fifth Ecumenical Council called by Emperor Justinian I. Council is characterized by internal friction with 165 bishops in attendance. (Source: Web)

600 CE


Fourth Church Age

Thyatira ( 600 - 1517 )
Dark Ages

Commendation given concerning this church and the related church age: ''commended for their works of love, faith, ministry, and patience and that these works were increasing.''

Condemnation given: ''lengthy condemnation .... involves the toleration of a woman named Jezebel. ... is most likely a reference to the Old Testament Jezebel to describe the state in Thyatira ''

''...[as] with Jezebel, it is not merely a corruption of the true religion, but a whole new god and system of worship were introduced in Israel ... Through Jezebel Baal worship came into the land resulting in more idolatry than ever before.''

''Jezebel thus became a very real picture of what the Roman Catholic church evolved into during the period of the Dark Ages. It introduced a paganism that resulted in idolatry and spiritual fornication, and it became a new religious system bearing little resemblance to the New Testament church.''

(Quotations from Fruchtenbaum)


Concerning the long range implications of this church age:

''Prophetically speaking, the major characteristics of Thyatira fit the church era that spanned the Middle Ages. During this time the dominant church fabricated a system that, like Jezebel, bound the people to image-worship, superstition, and priestcraft. These Scripture verses indicate this church will still have some adherents and some power into the ''great tribulation.'' But the believing remnant from this prostituted form of Christianity is promised it will be percent at the Rapture and will be delivered from the clutches of the ''mother'' church by Messiah's return.'' (Quoted from Lindsey)

Fruchtenbaum notes the following false doctrines were introduced during this age(Quotation from Fruchtenbaum):

''1. Justification by works—not simply by faith;
2. Baptismal regeneration—that a person is saved by baptism;
3. Worship of images;
4. Celibacy—forbidding priests to marry, a further distinction between clergy and laity;
5. Confessionalism—where sins are confessed to a priest who then declares absolution of those sins;
6. Purgatory—a place of confinement which is neither heaven nor hell, but a place where one has to be refined before going into heaven; hence sanctification was not complete at death;
7. Transubstantiation—the concept of the continual and perpetual sacrifice of [Messiah];
8. Indulgences—where through the giving of money, a person's time in purgatory could be reduced;
9. Penance—involving the torment of one's body in order to reduce time in purgatory; and,
10. Mariolotry—the worship of the virgin Mary, her elevation as the mother of God and the declaration of her deity.''

Book printing in China (G)


600 CE - Pope Gregory strives for the peaceful conversion of the Jews (G)

614 CE - Persian king Chosroes II appoints Nehemiah as governor of Jerusalem (IP)

610 CE - Mohammed's vision on Mount Hira. (G)

615 CE - Earliest records of some of Mohammed's teachings.

619 CE - The ''Suan-Ching'' (''Ten Classics''): scientific textbooks used for Chinese examinations. (G)

Abd el-Malik >

629 CE - Emperor Heraclius recaptures city (Jerusalem) and builds an octagonal church on Temple Mount. (IP)

638 CE Moslem conquest by Umar Ibn Khattab; establishing Islamic rule lasting to 1917 CE (except 1099 to 1187 when Crusaders ruled over Jerusalem)

Wooden El Aksa Mosque constructed (700 CE).

Dome of the Rock built by Abd el-Malik (684 - 690 CE)

622 CE - ''Originum sive etymologiarum libri XX,'' and encyclopedia on arts and sciences by Isidore of Seville. (G)

625 CE - Mohammed begins to dictate Koran.

628 CE - Mohammed writes letters to all the rulers of the world explaining the principles of the Moslem faith. (G)

632 CE - Buddhism becomes state religion in Tibet. (G)


660 - 750 CE
Revolts, persecutions of Jews, and deterioration of Jerusalem.

680 CE Sixth Ecumenical Council called by Emperor Constantine IV (Pogonatos). The Council resolved some of the earlier issues of the Fifth Council, some of which deal with the nature of Messiah (Devine and human). (Source: Web)

686 CE - Sussex, the last heathen kingdom in England, converted to Christianity. (G)

692 CE Quinisext or Trullan Council called by Justinian II. Council dealt with issues from the two preceding (Fifth and Sixth Ecumenical) Councils. (Source: Web)

695 CE - Persecution of Jews in Spain. (G)

Persecution of a Key People Group15
Persecution of the Jewish People

700 CE - Water wheels for mill drive in use all over Europe. (G)

Harnessing Global Energetics14
Harnessing Power - The Beginning of Global Energetics

750 CE - Prime period of medicine, astronomy, mathematics, optics, and chemistry in Arab Spain. (G)


700 CE - Easter eggs come into use among Christians. (G)

711 CE - Spanish Jews, freed by Arabs, begin their cultural development. (G)

746 CE - El Aksa Mosque destroyed by earthquake.

751 CE - Islam in four sects: Sunnites, Hafenites, Shafites, and Malikites. (G)

787 CE Seventh Ecumenical Council called by Empress Irene in Nicaea. This final Council dealt predominantly with a controversy regarding icons and their place in Orthodox worship. (Source: Web)

800 CE - The city of Machu Picchu in Peru (rediscovered in 1911). (G)

870 CE- Johannes Scotus Erigena compiles his encyclopedia on nature. (G)

Cataloging - Science in Infancy16
The Art of Cataloging - Science in Infancy

878 CE - Arab astronomer al-Battani begins his observations. (G)


800 CE - Pope Leo III separates from the Eastern Empire and becomes supreme bishop of the West. (G)

Charlemagne reforms the Church. (G)

830 CE Dome of the Rock restored.

Activity on the Temple Mount17
Activity on the Temple Mount

850 CE - Groups of Jews settle in Germany and begin to develop their own language (Yiddish). (G)

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Timeline for 900s to 2011 CE



900 CE - Vikings have developed the art of shipbuilding.

Vikings discover Greenland

Paper manufacturing at Cairo. (G)

963 CE - ''The Book of Fixed Stars'' by Al Sufi mentions nebula. (G)

978 CE - Chinese encyclopedia of 1000 volumes begun, completed c. 984. (G)

1000 CE - Lief Ericson discovers America (?). (G)

Exploration an Advanced Form of Migration18
Exploration... an Advanced Form of Migration

Mention of several abortive attempts to fly or float in air.

Arabs and Jews become court physicians in Germany. (G)





998 CE - Feast of All Souls celebrated for the first time in Cluny. (G)

1054 CE - Separation between Roman and Eastern Churches becomes permanent. (G)

1059 CE - Papal decree establishing papal elections by cardinals only. (G)

1074 CE - Excommunication of married priests. (G)


1100 CE - Decline of Islamic science begins.

1125 CE - Alexander Neckam: earliest account of mariner's compass. (G)

1150 CE - Founding of Paris University.

Medical faculty at Bologna University. (G)


1100-1190 CE Conquest of Holy Land in name of Christianity. Jews and Moslems flee, are murdered, or put into slavery.

1115 CE Dome of Rock; start of renovations and structure then used by Crusaders as a church (The Temple of the Lord; completed 1142 CE) (Source: Web)

ca. 1125 CE and thereafter Crusaders start to rebuild Jerusalem along with churches inside the city and in neighboring sites; Temple Mount clsoed to Jews and Muslims (Source: Web)

1165 CE Maimonides in Jerusalem

1189 CE - Massacre of the Jews at the coronation of Richard I. (G)

Saladin >

1187 CE Jerusalem recaptured and Crusaders defeated. Start of Second Islamic era. - Jews encouraged to once again return to the city, settle and even build synogogues in Jerusalem (Source: Web)

Alcohol used for medical purposes. (G)

1271 CE - Marco Polo journeys to China (to 1295). (G)

1275 CE - William of Saliceto: ''Chirurgia,'' earliest record of human dissection. (G)


1200 CE - Islam begins to replace Indian religions.

1200 CE - Development of Jewish cabalistic philosophy in southern Europe. (G)

1209 CE - Francis of Assisi issues first rules of his brotherhood (The Franciscans). (G)

ca. 1250 CE (to end of Mamluk period; 1516 CE) Jewish faithful allowed togather and pray at the eastern wall of the Temple Mount. (Source: Web)

1275 CE - Moses de Leon, Jewish theologian author of ''Zohar,'' the fundamental work on Jewish mysticism. (G)

1303 CE - Bernard of Gordon: First medical reference to spectacles. (G)

1313 CE - The German Grey Friar Berthold Schwartz invents gunpowder. (G)

1363 CE - Guy de Chauliac: ''Chirurgia magna'' (on surgery in the Middle Ages). (G)

1396 CE - birth of Johann Gutenberg, inventor of printing in Europe. (G)

The 'Father' of Information Dissemination?19
The 'Father' of Information Dissemination?


1349 CE - Persecution of Jews in Germany. (G)

1441 CE - Portuguese navigators find first Negroes near Cape Blanc, western Africa, and start slave trade again. (G)

1452 CE - metal plates used for printing.


1453 to 1455 CE - Gutenberg prints the 42-line (Mazarin) Bible at Mainz. (G)

1491 CE - Copernicus studies at Cracow University. (G)

1492 CE - Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain fund Columbus, 3 ships, and crew of 70. (G)

1498 CE - Vasco da Gama discovers sea route to India. (G)


1495 CE - Jews expelled from Portugal. (G)

1501 CE - Printing and typography expand to over 1000 offices producing over 35,000 books with approx. 10 million copies. (G)

1507 CE - Martin Waldseemuller: proposes New World be called ''America'' after Amerigo Vespucci. (G)

1510 CE - Leonardo ad Vinci designs horizontal water wheel.

1512 CE - Copernicus: earth and planets circle the sun. (G)




< A Step Toward an Age of Information

1509 CE - Persecution of Jews in Germany. (G)

About this time Jewish faithful move from praying at eastern wall to a more protected area of Temple Mount western wall within Jerusalem. (Source: Web)

1517 CE - Martin Luther, in protest against the sale of indulgences, posts his 95 theses on door of Palast Church in Wittenberg; begins reformation in Germany. (G)

1523 CE during Ottoman Dominion over Jerusalem, the Western Wall becomes prominant place of Jewish worship. (Source: Web)

Reformation and Acceleration Everywhere20
Reformation and Acceleration Everywhere

Fifth Church Age

Sardis ( 1517 - 1648 [or 1700]) Reformation

[As opposed to the dates offered by A. Fruchtenbaum above, Lindsey sets this age from 1517 to 1750]

Commendation given concerning this church and the related church age: ''..the commendation to ''those escaping.'' Their garments are undefiled and white. Hence, these are the ones who have exercised faith and do have spiritual life and have overcome the deadness of the church.''

Condemnation given: regarding this church: ''They have a name that lives, but actually they are dead. This is a valid description of the church of the Reformation as it developed in its later stages. They had a name that lived: the Reformation resulted in much doctrinnal correction and good creed. Much of the wrong done and the doctrines promulgated by the Roman Catholic Church were corrected by the Reformation. ... Nevertheless, they were dead: there was no spiritual vitality. They became dead, because they failed to rectify the basic problem which was the unity of the church and state. ... What corrupted Pergamum also corrupted Sardi. ... Personal faith had little or nothing to do with becoming a member of the church. So in a matter of time the greater part of the church was composed of unbelievers.''

(Quotations from Fruchtenbaum)


Concerning the long range implications of this church age:

''The church of Sardis symbolized the Reformation Era. During this period of history the church was reformed, but not revived! Some essential doctrines were reclaimed, such as the truth that people can be justified with God only by faith, but the changes did not shake loose the elaborate rituals and human traditions of the medieval church. Complacency and a new legalism set in, and only a few tasted the power of the Holy Spirit for Christian living.'' (Quotation from Lindsey)

1519 CE - Cortes enters Tenochtitlan capital of Mexico and received by Aztec ruler Montezuma. (G)

Magellan leaves Europe to circumnavigate the globe.

Period >

1517 CE
Turkish rule

1523 CE Anthony Fitzherbert: ''Book of Husbandry,'' first English manual of agriculture. (G)

1530 CE Portuguese colonize Brazil (G)

1531 CE First complete edition of Aristotle's works published by Erasmus (G)

1540 CE Ether produced from alcohol and sulfuric acid (G)

1546 CE Geographer, Gerardus Mercator states that the earth has a magnetic pole (G)

1547 CE First predictions of the French astrologer Nostradamus (G)


1522 CE Luther condemns fanatics and iconoclasts; finishes translation of New Covenant (Old Covenant 1534); the Wittenberg printer, Hans Lufft, produces 100,000 copies in course of next 40 years. (G)

1526 CE Persecution of Jews in Hungary (G)

1536 CE Act of Parliament declares the authority of the pope void in England

William Tyndale, English reformer, burned at the stake (G)

1541 CE John Knox leads Calvinist Reformation in Scotland (G)

1541 CE Ottoman Sultan Suleyman issues edict - allows Jewish use of Western Wall as a formal gathering place. (Source: Web)

1543 CE First Protestants burned at the stake by Spanish Inquisition

1560 CE First scientific society founded at Naples (G)

1564 CE Bernardino Telesio ''De rerum natura,'' foreshadowing empirical methods of science (G)

1576 CE Clusius publishes treatise on flowers of Spain and Portugal; beginning of modern botany (G)

1589 CE Galileo Galilei becomes professor of mathematics at Univ. Pisa (G)


1551 CE Jews persecuted in Bavaria (G)

1558 CE ''Zohar,'' cabbalistic work of Jewish mysticism (13th century) printed (G)

ca. 1560 CE Jewish residents moved out of Muslim Quarter and new settlement began in the area later to be known as the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem.

1576 CE League of Torgau, supporting opinions of the Lutherans, draws up Articles of Faith (G)

1600 CE William Gilbert: ''De Magnete,'' treatise on magnetism and electricity

Dutch opticians invent the telescope (G)

1602 CE Galileo investigates laws of gravitation and oscillation (G)

1605 CE Sante Fe, New Mexico, founded

1607 CE Founding of Jamestown, VA, first English settlement on American mainland (G)

1611 CE Marco de Dominis publishes scientific explanation of rainbow (G)

1636 CE Harvard College founded

1640 CE Coke made from coal for first time (G)

1644 CE Roger Williams: ''Queries of Highest Consideration,'' Separation of Church and State (G)


1611 CE Authorized version of the Holy Bible - ''King James Bible'' - published (G)

1616 CE Galileo prohibited by Catholic Church from further scientific work. (G)

1633 CE First Baptist church formed at Southwark, London (G)

1637 CE Extermination of Christianity in Japan

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 References:  - click panel tab below to see more ...
SOURCES, Citations, and Reference listing.
TimeLine References:
  • Various sources were used to develop this time line. Where possible dates are cross checked or events are placed in relative position. Many of the dates used above come from the following references:
  • Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, Th.M., Ph.D.1982. Footsteps of Messiah - A Study of the Sequence of Prophetic Events. (Fruchtenbaum)
  • Ayers, Ed. 1999. God's Last Offer - Negotiating for a Sustainable Future. (A)
  • Fruchtenbaum, Arnold G., Th.M., Ph.D.1982. Footsteps of Messiah - A Study of the Sequence of Prophetic Events. (Fruchtenbaum) (New edition 2003)
  • Graham, Billy. 1992. Storm Warning. Published by: W Publishing Group (formerly Word Publishing)
  • Grun, Bernard. 1991. The Timetables of History - A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. New Third Revised Edition. Based on Werner Stein's Kulturfahrplan. A Touchstone Book:New York. (G)
  • Ice, T., and R. Price. 1989. Ready to Rebuild — The Imminent Plant to Rebuild the Last Days Temple. (IP)
  • (Info)
  • H. Lindsey. 1973. There's A New World Coming. Bantam Books. (Lindsey)
  • Randall Price. 2001 Unholy War. (P)
  • Dr. G. Schroeder with Z. Levitt. Genesis One. Levitt Ministries (see note in graphic box at top of this table for details).
  • SciNews: Science News is a science news weekly generally obtained by subscription, also see:
  • Web (Internet): Occasionally we find what appear as reliable, but formally unpublished, sources on the Internet. As such these entries remain to be fully confirmed. In many cases this information is found to agree with the remainder of the timeline and the published sources used here.
  • Zondervan Corporation. 1985. The NIV Study Bible. Zondervan Bible Publishers:Grand Rapids.

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