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Eternity Past

Science-based perspective, references, comments and other notes

timeline Steps

Biblical covenants, references, comments and other notes

Timeline for: Eternity Past to 30 CE

Read about the timeline buttons!
See the Video Introduction
Video Introduction

See Ross (Fingerprint of God) and Schroeder (Science of God)

''Absence'' of known dimensions
What About Hidden Dimensions! 2
Hidden Dimensions

Time is now a dimension that in terms of relativity proceeds at a ''clock's pace'' depending on one's perspective (e.g. position within the universe relative to other locations and conditions)

See figures and text in Creator's Window Chapter IX

Scientific evidence of a creation event increases throughout the 20th century (see accounts by Heeren, Ross, Schroeder, et al. [see book titles])



Big Bang


Dimensions 'initiated'

Biblical paradigm of a beginning is scientifically correct.

Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

No other ancient ''creation text'' fits modern scientific evidence as does the Hebrew text.

For another well reasoned perspective on time and the physics and astronomy describing the beginning of the universe see: Dr. Hugh Ross in his books entitled: The Genesis Question, Creation and Time, and (Fingerprint of God)

One perspective noted here can be seen in calculations for creation days based on Dr. G. Schroeder, Chapter 4 of: The Science of God.
This will help to follow the physics, mathematics (the logic and remarkable simplicity of this concept) to understand the biblical and scientific significance of this calculation.

in 15 billion years
in terms of relativity


From Dr. G. Schroeder: Divide 15 Billion (years) by 1,000 billion. This equals 0.015; and when this is multiplied by 365 (days per year) this equals approximately 6 days!

Earth-based time: 24 hours
Genesis cosmic time: approximately 8 billion years


Day One

Genesis 1: 1 - 5 (See Table 4 for biblical text)

Science based comparisons see Table 4

Event notes

a) earth not yet formed
b) light appears
c) formation of matter leading to primordial clouds of condensing hydrogen and helium, and later stars, early galaxies, planets
d) God delineates between light and dark distinguishing a link between light and day from dark and night

Earth-based time: 24 hours
Genesis cosmic time: approximately 4 billion years


Day Two

Genesis 1: 6 - 8 (See Table 4 for biblical text)

Earth fully formed 4.5 BYA

First signs of life 3.8 BYA

First single cell fossils 3.2 BYA

Science based comparisons see Table 4

Event notes

a) There is a clear structuring of the universe and a separation of the content (waters) into distinct parts

b) if firmament implies formed solid structures then the form (solidification) of the earth may be evident at this point (compare Ross and Schroeder comments in Table 4)

Earth-based time: 24 hours
Genesis cosmic time: approximately 2 billion years


Day Three

Genesis 1: 9 - 13 (See Table 4 for biblical text)

Science based comparisons see Table 4

Event notes

a) water (ocean) in one place leaves land to emerge as a single feature in one contiguous area (this is consistent with geologic evidence for a land mass (i.e., pangea) that later split into separate continents)

b) grass may be simpler sea vegetation or more complex forms in either sea or on land. The text is not specific. But seed and fruit would imply to a modern botanist that plants included some level of sophistication in transferring genetic information and this would be important for survival of plants upon (dry) earth

c) the earth brought forth... text appears to indicate an involvement between the will of the Creator and the ability of the created earth to give rise to plant life

d) unique species of organisms maintained their identity generation to life generation (seed produced reproduced like ['his kind']organisms in next generation)

Earth-based time: 24 hours
Genesis cosmic time: approximately 1 billion years


Day Four

Genesis 1: 14 - 19 (See Table 4 for biblical text)

Science based comparisons see Table 4

Event notes

a) firmament appears to refer to expanse of space and not a solid surface... the light sources (sun, moon, stars) function in determining not only days and nights, but also seasons and distinct periods of calendar time

b) the role for sun and moon light is described

c) note 'made' at this point is an active verb and can be understood in parallel with the creation of stars and heavenly bodies that appear during day one. The emphasis here may simply be the assignment of light from made bodies (sun and moon) for the purpose of this day, that is, to delineate day from night and the distinct role of sun and moon. The idea that plants were made before the existence of sun and moon is not necessarily implied and is sometimes a source of confusion to first time readers of Genesis 1; there is therefore no contradiction here with science.

Earth-based time: 24 hours
Genesis cosmic time: approximately 0.5 billion years


Day Five

Genesis 1: 20 - 23 (See Table 4 for biblical text)

Simple globular life forms 650 MYA

Sponge fossils 580 MYA

Biology's Big Bang - the rapid appearance of life on earth! 3
Cambrian Explosion and the Appearance of Life

Cambrian explosion 530 MYA

Science based comparisons see Table 4

Event notes

a) sea and air now domains with early animal life forms. A reading of Ross and Schroeder helps to refine one's understanding of the original Hebrew terms used here and the way these are translated to English. A word study of the Hebrew offers much more than a straight reading of the English as presented to the left!

b) the original created life forms go through a multi-generational amplification of numbers of individuals... filling the sea and air. This prepares the way for creation of a unique man and woman among all life forms.

Earth-based time: 24 hours
Genesis cosmic time: approximately 0.25 billion years


Day Six

Genesis 1: 24 - 31 (See Table 4 for biblical text)

Flowering plants appear without clear evidence of intermediates to advanced floral structures

Science based comparisons see Table 4

Total 24 hour days: 6

Total years: about 15.75 billion

Event notes

a)land animals come forth
b) Adam and Eve created
c) man is set as steward of all living things on earth
d) man made in God's image
e) God's blessing for all life to multiply and for man to have dominion over all life upon earth
f) man is to be sustained by eating of fruit (herb, vegetable) and animal (meat)

Historicla Overviewh1
Click this button for a pop-up frame with a Historical view based on Hebrew Scriptures
Starting here with ADAM & EVE

This time line is accompanied by a separate table listing the seven days and compares the scripture text to known scientific observations. The writings of two scientists are used to supply suggestions and scientific evidence.

See Table 4, entitled: Comparison of Major Genesis Day Events as Appears in the Hebrew Text of Genesis One and as Observed by Drs. Ross and Schroeder

Note that Dr Ross has considered that Day Seven includes events following creation of Adam and Eve, while Dr. Schroeder considers how Day Six includes current history and Day Seven is yet to come. See Table 4 for details.


Day Seven

(starts here
or later,
see notes)

Genesis 2: 1 - 3 (See Table 4 for biblical text)

Previous timeframes have continually decreased (according to Schroeder). One might suggest the next period for Day Seven is yet to come and may correspond to a period defined later in scripture. The time line (below) includes a (Kingdom) period defined as one thousand years. If that period and this day are related, then the following reference might have a specific application that is as yet unrealized.

Psalm 90:4 For a thousand years in Your sight Are like yesterday when it is past, And like a watch in the night.

time map

"The initial six days referred to on the left are essentially 24 hour days from the perspective of one at the point of creation (think of this as the 'center' of the universe). These days contain all the ages of the universe because and this is the result of the continual expansion of space. Elsewhere within the expanding universe one experiences the result of the dilation of time and this results in the 15 billion years indicated in the chart. Time not dilating at the 'center' might be a minute, but elsewhere as space expands and time is dilating with expansion... this same minute could be centuries, millennia, longer eras of time. After Adam and Eve appear, time takes an earthly perspective giving us the calendar years common to our planet and these are the years referred to on the right side of the chart above."

From Genesis One, DR G. Schroeder with Zola Levitt [copies of this booklet are available from: ZOLA, P.O. Box 12268, Dallas, TX 75225]

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Schroeder proposes that as the Sixth Creation Day nears to a close the creation of Adam and Eve locks in the 24 hour time frame for the remaining days referred to in the biblical text.

Adam and Eve are made unique and distinct from all other hominid species in that these individuals are recipients of God's breath (Hebrew: neshama; giving us the soul of man) and thus a unique spiritual awareness.

Adam and Eve

Edenic Covenant
(SeeTable 2)

Identifying the Messiah... but how?4
Messianic Prophecy
First Messianic Prophecy

Genesis 3:15

see Fruchtenbaum, Messianic Christology

Fall of mankind

Adamic Covenant
Table 2)

Cain kills Abel

Genesis 4:8-15

Was the flood real? Was it global? One responsible and reasonable consideration of the flood event, from a scientific perspective, is provided by Dr. Hugh Ross in his book entitled: The Genesis Question.


Noahic Covenant
(See Table 2)

Genesis 6:1-8:19; 9:1-17

Historical Overview h2
Concerning Noah and Starting Over Again

First year of Jewish calendar 3760 BCE. (G)

First date in Mayan chronology is 3372 BCE. (G)

Egypt introduces calendar of 365 days 2772 BCE. (G)

Cheops Pyramid conforms in layout and dimensions to astronomical measurements. (G)

Tower of Babel

Genesis 11:1-9

Egyptians discover use of papyrus. (G)

Bow and arrow used in warfare. (G)

Call of Abraham

Abrahamic Covenant
Table 2)

2100 BCE

Genesis 12:1-3; 15:18

Promise (4th Dispensation) Genesis 12:1-Exodus 18:27)

(by comparison, other sources list date at 1976 BCE)

Historical Overviewh3
Abraham and the Land

Babylonia uses highly developed geometry as basis for astronomic measurements; knows signs of the zodiac. (G)

Decimal system used on Crete. (G)

Abraham offers his son, Isaac
2050 BCE

Genesis 22 - See types and shadows discussion of this event in Creator's Window Chapter 16

(by comparison other sources list date at 1926 BCE)

Jacob and his sons in Egypt

1876 BCE

Genesis 46

Historical Overviewh4

Historical Overviewh5
Locating the real Mt. Sinai5
Search for Mt. Sinai
Giving of the Law

Mount Sinai

Mosaic Covenant
Table 2)

1440s BCE
Exodus 19:1-31:18; 19:25

Beginning of true Iron Age in Syria and Palestine. (G)


Palestinic Covenant
Table 2)
Deuteronomy 30:1-10

Historical Overview h6
Quest of the Land

Entering Israel
Hebrew Presence Established in the Land

1406 BCE Jews under Joshua begin conquest of Canaan. (P)

Historical Overviewh7
Affliction of the Land
Birth of Samuel

1105 BCE
1 Samuel 1:1-23

Classic paganism in Greece (1000 to 900 BCE) (G)

Pantheistic religion develops in India. (G)


Davidic Covenant
(See Table 2)

(1010 - 970 BCE)

2 Samuel 7:16

Historical Overviewh8

Iron Age and Ancient Building Techniques6
The Temples

David returns Ark of Covenant to Jerusalem, plans first Temple, erects alter of sacrifice on Mt. Moriah, and builds City of David south of Temple Mount.

Historical Overviewh2.1
From David to Temple


950 BCE

Enlarges city of Jerusalem, builds First Temple and Palace (1 Kings 5-9, 2 Chronicles 2)

Historical Overviewh2.2
Solomon and Israels' Kingdoms

Experience WindowView
(the main goals of this site!)


900 to 800 BCE - Elijah opposes worship of Baal

Iron and steel production. (G)


910 BCE

Kingdom divided into 10 northern tribes (Israel) and 2 southern tribes (Judah).

Pharaoh Shishak
(identity possibly Ramses III) plunders temple content (1 Kings 14:25-28, 2 Chronicles 12:1-11)

Jerusalem's Temples, past and future!7
Iron Age

875 - 848 BCE


Repairs Temple
(2 Kings 12:5)


740 - 681 BCE

Assyrian Captivity

Around 722 BCE

2 Kings 17:6, 23-25


Restores Temple (2 Chronicles 29-31)


605 - 530 BCE.
Daniel's writings transcend Babylonian domination and account for coming kingdoms and includes Messianic timelines (see Window Part III and Chapter XV, PDF file, for details)

Thales of Miletus, Greek philosopher (624 to 545 BCE)(G)

Anaximander of Miletus, Greek philosopher (611 to 546 BCE)(G)

Lao-tse, Chinese philosopher (b. 604 BCE)(G)

Babylonian Empire

626 - 539 BCE


Prophecy of a 70-year captivity in Babylon
(Jeremiah 29:1-14)

The Writings of Daniel8
Writings of Daniel

Babylonian Captivity under Nebuchadnezzar

Daniel's writings and many of the Hebrew Scriptures put in writing. (G)

605 BCE (IP) - Invades Jerusalem, burns city, Temple is destroyed, and contents taken to Babylon.
(2 Kings 24-25,
2 Chronicles 36)

597 BCE - second invasion and all remaining Temple treasures removed to Babylon. (IP)

586 BCE - final invasion and total destruction of Temple and palaces as predicted by Ezekiel (9:1-8). (IP)

Kung Fu-tse (Confucius) Chinese philosopher (551 to 479 BCE)(G)

Anaximander (d. 546) taught that all life develops from amphibians. (G)

Siddhartha, founder of Buddhism (550 to 480 BCE)(G)

Greek philosophers adopt theory of earth as a disk covered by dome of sky, or as floating free in spherical sky (G)

Persian Empire

539 - 330 BCE

538 BCE - Cyrus permits about 50,000 Jews to return to Jerusalem under leadership of Zerubbabel. (IP)

Hippocrates, Greek physician, ''Father of Medicine,'' b. 460 BCE (G)

Socrates, Atenian philosopher (470 to 399 BCE)(G)

Carrier pigeons used in Greece. (G)

Decree of Artaxerxes to rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple

444 BCE

Nehamiah 2:1-8

See Creator's Window Chapter 15

Plato (427 to 347 BCE)(G)

Aristotle, Greek philosopher (384 to 322 BCE) (G)

Use of catapults as weapons of war. (G)

Aristotle teacher to Alexander the Great (343 BCE) (G)

Euclid: ''Elements'' (standard work on geometry - 323 BCE) (G)

Greek Empire

330 - 63 BCE Initially with Alexander the Great followed by Ptolemies and Seleucids.

Alexander's power described by Daniel (9:24-27; as described in Creator's Window Chapter 15)

Eratosthenes of Cyrene, Greek scientist (276 to 194) (G)...suggests that the earth moves around the sun.

Great wall of China (215 BCE) (G)

Use of gears leads to invention of ox-driven water wheel for irrigation (c. 200 BCE) (G)

Water and Agriculture9
Water and Agriculture

Translation of Hebrew Scriptures

Writing of ''Septuagint,'' Greek version of Tanach (i.e., Old Testament)
(c. 255 BCE) (G)

Hebrew Scholars Make the Translation10
Hebrew Scholars Make the Translation

Hipparchus of Nicaea, made important astronomical discoveries and invented trigonometry (b. c. 160 BCE) (G)


Antiochus IV (Epiphanes)

Seleucid Rule

175 - 164 BCE

Antiochus desecrates Temple, sacrifices a sow (unacceptable sacrifice), and plunders Temple treasuries.

Sacrifice halted at Temple in Jerusalem

Daniel notes sacrifice is halted for both 2,300 days [then sacrifices are resumed] and 1,290 days [but sacrifices not resumed in the second case].
Two distinct time frames speak to two different segments on the time line. The former fits events associated with Antiochus (see Daniel 8), the latter period fits the Tribulation period to come later, see below for timeline segment that applies to Tribulation period.



Macabees dedication of Temple

In anticipation of the Messiah's coming to Israel... Macabees may well have read book of Daniel to understand their actions fit a time line of events preceding Messiah

168 BCE; See Creator's Window Chapter 15 (click here!)

Book of Macabees describes conflict with Antiochus and eventual return of temple to Israel

Fulfills Daniel 8:14 (temple cleansed after a period of 2,300 days) The beginning of Hanukah (see timeline Table)

Rise of Pharisees and Sadducees in Israel (c. 112 BCE) (G)


141 BCE Macabees conquer Roman fortress and free Temple from foreign presence.

Historical Overviewh2.3
Between the Books
Following the Messianic Seed

Roman Empire

63 BCE to early 300s CE

63 BCE - Pompey tears away veil of separation and marches into the Temple's Holy of Holies. (IP)

Adoption of Julian calendar of 365.25 days; leap year introduced (46 BCE) (G)


40 BCE

- 23 BCE Proposes Temple Mount be enlarged (IP)

- 19 BCE Temple rebuilt and enlarged (IP)

Messiah's Birth - proof text11
Messiah's Birth
Birth of Messiah

Luke 2
See Table 3

Messiah - Events fulfilled for a  purpose12
Events Fulfilled for a Specific Purpose
Messiah's sacrifice for humanity's sin

33 CE
See Table 3
Yeshua fulfills Psalm 22
and Isaiah 53

Unusual Temple Events After Messiah's Departure

See evidences noted in Talmud article


33 CE
Acts 2
See Table 3

Gaius Caligula

40-41 CE - orders that his image be placed in Holy of Holies. Strong Jewish resistance prevented this edict from being carried out. (IP)

Temple Destruction

69 CE - Nero sends Vespasian and Roman Legion to retake all areas but Jerusalem. (IP)

70 CE Under Titus the city and Temple are destroyed. (IP)

One of earliest churches erected at Corinth (c. 40 CE) (G)

London founded (43 CE) (G)

New Covenant

70 CE (See Table 2)
Hebrews 8:8 (fulfillment of Jeremiah 31:31)

Read Jeremiah's words about the (Jewish) New CovenantJ31
New Covenant Foretold in Tanach

First Century

70 CE Temple destroyed (fulfills: Daniel 9:26; Matthew 24:2)

117 CE - Roman emperor Publius Aelius Hadrian rules - during his time he gives permission to the Jews to rebuild the Temple but no progress ever made. (IP)

132 CE Simion bar Kosiba (Bar Kokhba) - heralded as Messiah - lead Jewish revolt and loss to Romans (IP)

Dispersal from Israel (Jews enter Diaspora and Messianic believers, composed of both Jewish and Gentile believers, take Messiah's message to the world at large)

Congregational Communities

ekklesia {ek-klay-see'-ah} - the Greek term used for early community gatherings of believers ... this term is the root for 'church' and for this time line should not be mistaken with any specific denomination. The early church is thus only gatherings of believers focusing on Messiah's teachings.

The definition for ekklesia according to Strong is: ''a gathering of citizens called out from their homes into some public place, an assembly.''

30 CE

The seven church ages are described in the ''new covenant'' [writings first mentioned in the book of Jeremiah 31:31]. This Jewish Brit Chadashah, or New Testament, ends with the book commonly called Revelation... the seven church age descriptions are based on the text of Revelation. See sources cited at the right for a detailed consideration of this material.


First Church Age

Church Ages reveal another  transition over time13
Church Ages

Ephesus (30 - 100 )
Apostolic Church

See Fruchtenbaum's Chapter 3 in Footsteps of Messiah for further details on the seven church ages. Each church age is reflected in Revelation chapters 2 and 3. Another easy reading description is provided by H. Lindsey in his early chapters of There's a New World Coming. The prophetic implication of each church age, as reflected by Lindsey, is quoted along with each age listed below.

Commendation given concerning this church and the related church age: ''...commended for condemninng false teachers...'' and ''...comended for hating the work of the Nicolaitians...''
''In church history there is no record or mention of this group, so clues as to its identity need to be sought elsewhere. The meaning of the word [i.e., Nicolaitians] in Greek is ''rulers of the people.'' This meaning may imply that this was an attempted to divide and make a distinction between the clergy and the laity, creating a division in which the clergy exercised rulership over the laity.''

Condemnation given: ''They have lost their first love, referring to love of Messiah [Jesus or Yeshua] and love of the Word [Scriptures]. The second generation of believers have grown lax and have become colde. They did not have the fervor of the firstt generation...''

(Quotations from Fruchtenbaum)

Concerning the long range implications of this church age:

''The Ephesian church is a prophetic picture of the Apostolic church. Like the church at Ephesus, the dominant historical characters of this era were correct doctrine, circumspect conduct, and zealous labor for the Lord, but waywardness in heart attitudes.

As their love for Messiah began to wane they more and more served out of a sense of duty. In their own estimation, their acceptance by the Lord depended on their performance for Him. This opened the door to legalism.

One of the crucial issues for a vital faith is pure motives. As we remember how Messiah has loved us, our natural response is to love Him in return (see 1 John 4:9,10).'' (Quotations from Lindsey)

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WindowView TimeLine
 References:  - click panel tab below to see more ...
SOURCES, Citations, and Reference listing.
TimeLine References:
  • Various sources were used to develop this time line. Where possible dates are cross checked or events are placed in relative position. Many of the dates used above come from the following references:
  • Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, Th.M., Ph.D.1982. Footsteps of Messiah - A Study of the Sequence of Prophetic Events. (Fruchtenbaum)
  • Ayers, Ed. 1999. God's Last Offer - Negotiating for a Sustainable Future. (A)
  • Fruchtenbaum, Arnold G., Th.M., Ph.D.1982. Footsteps of Messiah - A Study of the Sequence of Prophetic Events. (Fruchtenbaum) (New edition 2003)
  • Graham, Billy. 1992. Storm Warning. Published by: W Publishing Group (formerly Word Publishing)
  • Grun, Bernard. 1991. The Timetables of History - A Horizontal Linkage of People and Events. New Third Revised Edition. Based on Werner Stein's Kulturfahrplan. A Touchstone Book:New York. (G)
  • Ice, T., and R. Price. 1989. Ready to Rebuild — The Imminent Plant to Rebuild the Last Days Temple. (IP)
  • (Info)
  • H. Lindsey. 1973. There's A New World Coming. Bantam Books. (Lindsey)
  • Randall Price. 2001 Unholy War. (P)
  • Dr. G. Schroeder with Z. Levitt. Genesis One. Levitt Ministries (see note in graphic box at top of this table for details).
  • SciNews: Science News is a science news weekly generally obtained by subscription, also see:
  • Web (Internet): Occasionally we find what appear as reliable, but formally unpublished, sources on the Internet. As such these entries remain to be fully confirmed. In many cases this information is found to agree with the remainder of the timeline and the published sources used here.
  • Zondervan Corporation. 1985. The NIV Study Bible. Zondervan Bible Publishers:Grand Rapids.

For a general listing of books, visit the WindowView Book Page for: Science and Scripture .
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